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ti;-'^i:^::6 












LmiGSTOi'S FATOEITE TOMATO. 



Three of the very best Tomatoes ever introduced, the 
Paragon, Acme and Perfection, were originated by Mr. 
Livingston; he now offers for the first time Livingstones 
Favorite, properly named in consequence of its containing so 
many of the good points sought after by market gardeners and 
other growers. 

It is the largest ]}erfect slia'^ed Tomato in cultivation, 
smoother than the Paragon, does not crack or rot like the 
Acme, is a darker red than the Perfection; ripens evenly and 
as early as any good variety, holding its size to the end of the 
season ; very prolific, good flavor, few seeds, flesh solid, bears 
shipping long distances. 



PRICE, Per Package, 



25 Cents. 







^,^#; mmn^:. 




-AND- 



#ardp Ulaiiwal, 



-FOR THE 



DESIGNATED 

To give directions for the Cultivation of Vegetables, as 

practiced in the South. 



Entered according to Act of Consress by Richard Fuotscher, in the office of the Librarian 
at Washington, in the year 1877 . 



^'WAmLmim&'ia^mm 



Nos. 15 and 17 DU MAINE STREET, 



NEAR THE FRENCH MARKET, 



EW ©ILEAHa LA, 



INTRODUCTION. 

For a series of years I distributed to my patrons, who applied 
to me for advice. Almanacs published in the North and Northwest 
and written principally with regard to those sections of the country. 

The directions which these works contained respecting the 
cultivation of vegetables, «&c., although excellent for the regions 
spoken of, were almost useless, and in many cases totally unfeasible 
in the iSouth, where the salubrity of the climate, the almost total 
absence of severe frosts, the practicabilifcy of raising successive 
similar or diversified crops in one season, and many other impor- 
tant natural causes, render the handling of the soil and times for 
planting necessarily very different. 

Having been a practical gardener myself, and, owing to my 
seed business, being brought into daily contact with the New Or- 
leans Market Gardeners, most of whom I supply with seeds, and 
having always taken a deep interest in the cultivation of vege- 
tables, I felt that I was qualified to give directions and informa- 
tion of a more practical value to Southern cultivators, than those 
found in the Almanacs and Seed Lists published by others who 
had not bad these advantages. 

These considerations influenced me a few years since to com- 
pile and publish an Almanac and Garden Manual, to present to 
the public, giving hints as to the proper time and methods of cul- 
tivating vegetables in the South, and so supply a want long felt 
in this ijortion of the country. 

In the improved condition of business in our section of the 
country, those who cultivate vegetables for sale, may look for a 
larger d> mand and a more extended field over which they can dis- 
tribute their products, and therefore the questions as to '^ what to 
cultivate f" and ^'how to do itT' are of greater interest than ever 
before. Those who have been pleased with the past numbers of 
my Almanac and Garden Manual, will find the present edition— 
for 18S3 — complete, interesting and reliable. The work has been 
carefully revised and enlarged, and will, I trust, aid materially in 
the development of that line of industry to which it is devoted. 

1 have received many letters from all parts of the South en- 
dorsing the correctness and utility of the information given in 
these pages, and accompanied with numberless compliments in 
reference to my perseverance and enterprise, and the usefulness 
of my book, for all of which I return hearty thanks. 

It has ever been my aim, by integrity and strict attention to 
business, to merit the confidence of customers and the community 
in general, and from the very liberal patronage bestowed on me, 
I may without presumption flatter myself that I have succeeded 
in doing so. 

Hoping that my Almanac and Garden Manual may prove 
yearly of more and more assistance to the Gardeners of the South, 
and assuring my patrons that a continuance of their favors will 
be duly appreciated, I remain, yours truly, 

9 RICHARD FKOTSCHER. 



Richard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 



SEEDS BY MAIL. 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part of the United States in 
packages, riot exceeding four pounds, at sixteen cents per pound 
or one cent per ounce or fraction thereof. On seeds ordered 
in papers or by the ounce I prepay the postage, except on peas, 
beans and corn. This refers to large sized papers which are sold 
at one dollar per. dozen. When ordered by the pound, sixteen 
cents per pound j)ostage has to be added to the price of the seeds. 
Peas, beans and corn thirty cents per quart. 

All packages are put up in the most careful manner, and 
every precaution taken to insure their reaching their destination 
in safety. Purchasers living at any place where my seeds are not 
sold, are requested to write to me to obtain their supplies. This 
will be more profitable than to buy from country stores where 
seeds left on commission are often kept till all power of germina- 
tion are destroyed. As Seed Merchants who give out their goods 
on commission, rarely collect what is not sold, oftener than once 
in everj^ twelve or eighteen months, and as Lettuce, Spinach, 
Parsnip, Carrots and many other seeds will either not sprout at 
all or grow very imperfectly if kept over a summer in the South, 
to buy and i)lant such is but money, time and labor waited. 

Here in our climate, where we plant garden vegetables as 
freely in autumn as in spring, and where often the seeds have to 
be put in the ground when the weather is very warm, it is an in- 
dispensable necessity to have x>erfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements with my growers are made so that I receive 
the new crop, expressly cleaned for me, as soon as it is matured. 
The varieties which are not raised in the ^tsTorth, I order from Eu- 
rope, and have them shipped so as to reach me about the begin- 
ning of August, just the time they are needed for fall planting. 
By following this plan I have alwaj^s a full supply of fresh seeds 
of undoubted germinating qualities, while dealers who sell on 
commission have only those left from the winter previous. 

It cannot be too well impressed on the minds of all cultiva- 
tors of vegetables, that seeds kept through a summer in this cli- 
mate will not grow, and that all who use such seeds will be 
losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested, 
and warranted to grow. 

Having received a great many complaints that letters which 
contained money addressed to me never reached me, I would cau- 
tion my customers not to send any money in letters, without reg- 
istering same. By sending one dollar or upward the cost, ten 
cents, can be charged to me. The cheapest and surest way is 
money order or draft, but where they cannot be had, letters have 
to be registered, which can be done at any Post Office. 



For the Southern States. 



A Few Remarks on Raising Vegetables for Shipping. 



Within the past few years the raising of early vegetables for 
shipping West, has become quite an item in the neighborhood of 
Kew Orleans. We have advantages here, which are not found 
elsewhere, for that branch of industry. Freights have been re- 
duced to all points from here, and special cars built expressly for 
carrying green vegetables and fruit, have been put on the Rail- 
roads. We are earlier here than at any other point, and with the 
rich groimd we have and the large supply of manure, to be had 
for the hauling only, early vegetables can be raised very success- 
fully. 

Almost every kind of vegetables are shipped from here, but 
Beans, Cucumbers, Beets, Tomatoes, Cabbage and Peas, form the 
bulk. In regard to Beans most gardeners make the mistake of 
planting common Eed Beans, when they should ijlant Dwarf Wax 
or Valentine, w^hich find much more ready sale and better prices 
than the first named. In the way of Cucumbers the improved W^hite 
Spine is the best variety, as it bears abundantly, and as it keeps 
its color, is better adapted for shipping than any other. I have 
been supplying the largest growers in that line with seed ; the 
stock of which cannot be surpassed in quality. Of Beets only the 
dark red Blood Turnip or the Egyptian should be planted for 
shipping purpose. The Egyptian is a very quickly growing va- 
riety and should not be sown quite so early as the Blood Turnip. 
January will be time enough. 

For Tomatoes the Extra Early Dwarf comes in bearing first, 
but should be planted only for the first crop, as when the Tilden 
and other large varieties come in the market, the former do not 
sell as well. Lettuce is shipped quite extensively ; the Improved 
Passion is used principally for that purpose. 

Potatoes and Onions are shipped in large quantities; but the 
former are very uncertain in regard to prices. Late shipped On- 
ions generally pay better than those shipped too early. The market 
often gets over stocked with vegetables, but never in the spring of 
the year as long as they can be shipped, and the planting at that 
time is more remunerative than at any other. 

There is a broad field yet to growers of vegetables for shipping. 

The past season has been a very profitable one for growers 
and shippers of vegetables from her6. We had no late frosts and 
therefore were early in the market. Cabbage and Beans brought 
high prices, also potatoes. The latter paid best when shipping 
had continued some time, and the highest prices were obtained at 
end of May. 



6 


Richard Frotsclierh Almanac and Garden Manual. 


1st 


Month. JANUARY. 31 Days. 


Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. \ 

1 




Last Qua 
!?ew Moor 
First Qua 
Full Moor 
Last Qua 


MOON'S PHASES. 

rter. Id. 7h. 29m. Morning. 

i 9d. 12h. 3Sm. Morning. 

rter 1.5H Th '^fim F.venino 




23d. Ih. 54m. Morning. 

31d. 5h. 5m. Morning. 


cter 


DAY 

OF 
"Month <fc"^eek. 


Strn 

rises. 
h. in. 


San 

sets 

h. m. 


Moon 
r. & 8. 
h. m, 


CHKONOLOGT 

— OF— 
IMFOBTANT EVENTS. 


1 


3 
4 
5 
6 


Mod. 

Tnes. 

Wed. 

riiuTs. 

Frid. 

Sat. 


7 9 

7 8 
7 8 
7 8 
7 7 
7 7 


4 51 
4 52 
4 52 
4 52 
4 53 
4 53 


moru.'Uuion of Ireland ^yilh Great Brltam. 1801 { 
12 44 :Gen. Wolf borr, Westerham, Kent. 1727 1 

1 50 1 Eliot Warburtou, Hist., Novelist, died, 1852 | 

2 40 llnrr^idu'D Silk manufes into Europe, 1536 

3 39 Vigil of Epiphany 

4 27 ET>iphaTiy. or 12th day. old Christmas Day j 


1) 


1st Sunday after Epiphany. Luke 2. Day's Length, 9h. 48m. 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

i 13 


Sun. 

Mofl. 

Tue?, 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Frid. 

Sot. 


7 6 
7 6 
7 6 
7 5 
7 4 
7 3 
7 3 


4 54 
4 54 
4 54 
4 55 
4 56 
4 57 
4 57 


5 16 

6 18 
sets. 
6 59 

8 9 

9 16 
10 21 


Robert Nic 11. poet, buru, 1814 

Bat. N. 0., 1815, & Inang. Gov. Nicholls 77 

Car. Lucr. Herschel. Astrono'r. died. 1848 

Ut Steamb't Nt-w Orleans fr. Pittsburg, '12 

First Lottery drawu in England, 1569 

St. Arcadius, Martyr 

G. Fox. Founder Sect of QnaVers. died, 1690 


h> 


2d Sunday after Epiphany. John 2. Day's Length, 9h. 56ni _ 


1 ^' 
15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 


Sim. 

Mod. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thnrs 

Fri. 

Sit. 


7 2 
7 1 
7 1 
7 
7 
6 59 
6 58 


4 58 
4 59 

4 59 

5 
5 
5 1 
5 2 


11 20 
morn. 

12 14 

1 12 

2 8 

3 2 
3 51 


'Great Frost " in England, began 1205 
Thomas Crofton Croker, born. 1798 
Edmond Spencer, Poet, died, 1599 
Mozart, Musician, born, 1756 
Festival of St. Petei's Chair, at Kome 
James Watt, born, 1736 
Coldest dav in the cen-^ury. 1838 


3) 


Septuagesima Sanday. Matth. 20. Day's Length, lOh. 6m. 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 


San. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed, 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 


6 57 
6 57 
6 56 
6 56 
6 55 
6 55 
6 54 


5 3 
5 3 
5 4 

5 4 
5 5 
5 5 
5 6 


4 40 

5 50 
rises. 

6 38 

7 36 

8 36 

9 37 


S'. Agues. Virgin Martyr, 3U4 
Era cis Bacon, born, 1561 
Thauksgiving for victory of 8th, 1815 
Frenerick rue Great, born 1712 
Sc. Paul's Day 
Louisiana seceded, 1861 
Admiral Lord Hond, died. 1816 


4) 


Sexagesima Sunday. Luke 8. Day's Length, lOh. 14m. 


'2^ 
29 
SO 
31 


Suu. 
Mon. 
Tnes. 
Wed. 


6 53 
6 52 
6 51 
6 50 


5 8 
5 9 
5 10 


10 39 
U 45 
morn. 
12 46 


Henry VIII, oied, 1547 

Kmannel de Swe fenborg. born, 1688^89- ^ 

King Cbarles L beheaded, 1649 

Ben, Johnston, born, 1574 


Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5643.— January 9, Rosh Hodesli Shebat. 

1 



For the Southern States, 



2(i Month. 



FEBRUARY. 



28 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Mooii 7d. 19h. 49m. Afternoon. 

First Quarter 14d. 4h. 34m. Morning. 

Full Moon 21d. 6h. 57m. Evening. 



Mor 


DAT 

OF 

ith & Week. 


Sun 
ri.-es 
h. m. 


Sun 

sets 

h. m- 


Moon 
r. & s. 
h. m. 


1 
2 
3 


rburs. 
Fri. 

Sat. 


6 49 
6 49 

6 48 


5 U 
5 11 
5 12 


1 42 

2 32 

3 22 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPORT A VT EVENTS. 



Washiugtou elected Preisidjut, 1789 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin [Can- 
Henry Cromwell, born, 1627 [dlemas Day 



5) Quinqnagesima Sunday. 



Luke ]8. 



Day's Length, lOh. 26m. 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



6 47 


5 13 


4 6 


6 46 


5 14 


5 


6 45 


5 15 


5 48 


6 44 


5 16 


sets 


6 43 


5 17 


7 


6 42 


5 18 


8 1 


6 41 


5 19 


8 56 



Delegates from Coufederate States meec at 

OleBull, born, 1810. [Montgomery, Ala., '61 

Mardi Gras in New Orleans 

Charles Dickens, born, 1812 

Mary Queen of Scots, beheaded, 1587 

David Kezzio, murdered, 1565-66 

Riot at Oxford, 1354 



6) 


1st Sunday in Lent. 




Matth. 4. Day's Length, lOh. 40m. 


11 


Sun. 


6 40 


5 20 


9 57 


Mary, Queen of England, born, 1516 


12 


Mon. 


6 39 


5 21 


10 58 


Abraham Lincoln, born, 1809 


13 


Tues. 


6 38 


5 22 


11 58 


St. Gregory II, Pope, 631 


14 


Wed. 


6 37 


5 23 


morn. 


St. Valentine's Day 


15 


rhurs. 


6 36 


5 24 


12 46 


Galilei Galileo, Astronomer, born, 1564 


16 


Fri. 


6 35 


5 25 


1 40 


Dr. Kane, Am. Art c Explorer, died, 1857 


17 


Sat. 


6 34 


5 26 


2 33 


Columbia, S. C, burned. 1865 



7) 2d Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 15 



Day's Length, lOh. 54m. 



18 


Sun. 


6 33 


5 27 


3 16 


Pope Gregory V, died. 999 


19 


Mon. 


6 32 


5 28 


4 24 


Eliz. Carter, classical scholar, died, 1806 


20 


Tues. 


6 31 


5 29 


5 36 


U. Gaghan & T. Conner, felon poets, hanged 


21 


Wed. 


6 30 


5 30 


rises 


Pierre du Bose, born, 1623 [1749 


22 


rhurs. 


6 29 


5 31 


7 6 


George Washington, born, 1732 


23 


Fri. 


6 28 


5 32 


8 12 


Battle of Buena Vista, 1847 


24 


Sat. 


6 27 


5 33 


8 58 


St. Matthias, Apostle 



8) 3d Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11. 



Day's Length, llh. 8m. 



25 


Suu. 


6 26 


5 34 


9 45 


Dr. Bucan, born, 17:^9 


26 


Mon. 


6 25 


5 35 


10 34 


Thomas Moore, Poet, died, 1852 


27 


rues. 


6 24 


5 36 


11 43 


Longfellow, born, 1807 [1447 


28 


Wed. 


6 23 


5 37 


morn . 


Humnhrey, Duke of Gloucester, murdered. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. 



-5643.— February 7 and 8, Rosh Hodesh Adar 
Rishon, 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



3d Month. 



MARCH. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON^S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 2d. 12h. 5m. Morning. 

New Moon 8d. llli. 10m. Evening. 

First Quarter 15d. 3h. 10m. Afternoon. 

Fall Moon 23d. 12h. 53m. Afternoon. 

Last Quarter 31d. 3h. Om. Afternoon. 



DAT 

OT 

Montli&Week, 


Srai 
rises, 
h. m. 


sets. 
h. m 


Moon 

r. & 8. 

h. m. 


CHRONOI.OGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 Tburs. 

2 Fri. 

3 Sat. 


6 22 
6 21 
6 19 


5 'SH 
5 39 
5 41 


12 46 Ist No. of the Spectator published, 1711. 

1 47 Territory of Dakota organized, 1861. 

2 41 Edmond Waller, Poet, born, 1605. 


9) 4th Sunday in Lent. John 6. Day's Length, llh. 24m. 



4 


Sun. 


6 J8 


5 42 


3 30 


5 


Mon. 


6 17 


5 43 


4 13 


6 


Tues. 


6 16 


5 44 


4 53 


7 


Wed. 


6 15 


5 45 


5 28 


8 


Thurs. 


6 14 


5 46 


sets. 


9 


Fri. 


6 13 


5 47 


7 36 


10 


Sat. 


6 11 


5 48 


8 42 



Abraham Lincoln inaugurated, 1861 

Ist Locomotive run through Brit, tube, 1830 

Great financial excitement, 1863. 

Blanchard, Aeronaut, died, 1809 

King William III, of England, died, 1702 

William Cobbett, born, 1762 

The Forty Martyrs of St. Sebaste, 32U 



10) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 8. 



Day's Length, llh. 40m. 



11 


Sun. 


6 10 


5 50 


9 35 


12 


Mon. 


6 9 


5 51 


10 36 


13 


Tues. 


6 8 


5 52 


11 33 


14 


Wed. 


6 7 


6 53 


morn. 


15 


Thurs. 


6 6 


5 54 


12 29 


16 


Fri. 


6 5 


5 55 


1 13 


17 


Sat. 


6 3 


5 57 


1 59 



Ist daily paper, '* Daily Courant," iir., 1702 
St. Gregory the Great, Pope, 604 
Discovery of planet tjranus, by Hersccel, 
Andrew Jackson, born, 1767 [1781 

Julius CsBsar, assassinated, B. C, 44 
Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures, 1823 
St-, Patrick. Apostle of Ireland 



11) Palm Sunday. 



Matth. 21. 



Day's Length, llh. 56m. 



18 


Sun. 


6 2 


5 58 


2 36 


19 


Mon. 


6 1 


5 59 


3 14 


20 


Tues. 


6 


6 


3 46 


21 


Wed. 


5 59 


6 1 


4 19 


22 


Thurs. 


5 58 


6 2 


4 52 


23 


Fri. 


5 57 


6 3 


rises. 


24 


Sat. 


5 56 


6 4 


7 2S 



Edward, King and Martyr, 978 

St. Joseph's Day 

Vesta discovered, 1807 

Louisiana ceded to France, 1800 

J. W. von Goethe, Ger, Poet, died, 1832 

Good Friday. [Mahomet II, born, 1430. 

Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 



12) 


Easter Sunday 


. 




Mark 16. Day's Length, 12h. 12m. 


25 


Sun. 


5 54 


6 6 


8 36 


Easter Sunday. 




26 


Mon. 


5 53 


6 7 


9 44 


Gov. Winthrop, died, 1640. 




27 


Tues. 


5 52 


6 8 


10 51 


Vera Cruz captured, 1847 




28 


Wed. 


5 51 


6 9 


11 56 


Planet Pallas, discovered. 1802 




29 


Thurs. 


5 50 


6 10 


morn. 


Mrs- Fitzherbert, died, 1837 




30 


Fri. 


5 49 


6 11 


12 50 


Dr. William Hunter, died, 1783 




31 


Sat. 


5 48 


6 12 


1 32 


Beethoven, died, 1827 





Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5643— March 9 and 10, Rosh Hodesh Adar Shenia 
and Shekolim— 17, Sochor— 22, Zom Ester— 23, Purim— 31, Poro. 



For the Southern States. 



4th Month. 



APRIL, 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 7d. 8h. 15m. 

First Quarter 14d. 3h. 28m. 

Full Moon 22d. 6h. 6m. 

Last Quarter 30d. Ih. 42m. 



Morning . 
Morning. 
Morning. 
Morning. 



DAY 


San 


Snn 


Moon 


VF 


rises 


sets. 


r. <fe 8. 


h&Week. 


li. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTAHiT EVENTS. 



13) Ist Sunday after Easter. 



John 20. 



Day's Length, 12h. 26m. 



San. 

Mon. 

Tues- 

Wed. 

i hurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



5 47 


6 13 


2 22 


5 46 


6 14 


3 2 


5 45 


6 15 


3 37 


5 43 


6 17 


4 7 


5 42 


6 18 


4 38 


5 41 


6 19 


5 13 


5 40 


6 20 


sets . 



Eanhqaake at Melbourne, 1871 

Jefferson, born, 1743 

Washington Irving, born, 1783 

Oliver Goldsmith, died, 1774 

8t. Irgprnach, of Ireland, 550 

B*ttleof Shiloh, 1862 

St Francis Xavier, Missionary, born, 1506 



14) 2d Sunday after Easter. John 10. 



Day's Length, 12h. 42m, 



Sua. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Tburs. 

Pri. 

Sat. 



5 39 


6 21 


7 39 


5 38 


6 22 


8 38 


5 37 


6 23 


9 39 


5 36 


6 24 


10 37 


5 35 


6 25 


11 29 


5 34 


6 26 


morn. 


5 33 


6 27 


12 19 



Louisiana admitted to the Union, 1812 

Gen. R, E. Lee, surrendered, 1865 

St. Bademns, Abbot, Martyr, 376 

Geo. Canning, born, 1770 [Sumter. 

First gun of Civil War fired. 1861, at Fort 

Sydney Lady Morgan, died, 1859 

Lincoln, assassinated, 1865 



15) 3d Sunday after Easter, 



John 16. 



Day's Length, 12h. 58m. 



15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 



J5UU. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



5 32 


6 28 


12 58 


5 31 


6 29 


1 34 


5 30 


6 30 


2 5 


5 29 


6 31 


2 36 


5 28 


6 32 


3 8 


5 27 


6 33 


3 44 


5 26 


6 34 


4 27 



Geo. Calvert, Lord Baltimore, .died, 1632 

Battle of Culloden, 1746 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, died, 1790 

Shakespeare, born, 1564 

Battle of Lextngton, 1775 

E. Barton, "Maid of Kent," executed, 1534 

Conft^d. victory at Plymouth, N. C, 1863 



16) 4th Sunday after Easter. John 16. 



Day's Length, 13h. 10m. 



22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

27 
28 



Suu. 

Mon. 

Tues . 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Pri. 

Sat. 



5 25 


6 35 


rises. 


5 24 


6 36 


8 24 


5 23 


6 37 


9 35 


5 22 


6 38 


10 31 


5 21 


6 39 


11 5 


5 20 


6 40 


11 55 


5 19 


6 41 


morn. 



Madam De Stael, born, 1766 

Shakespeare, died, 1616 

Oliver Cromwell, born, 1599 

St. Mark's Day 

David Hume, born. 1711 [1794 

Sir Wm. Jones, Poet and Scholar, died, 

Monroe, born, 1758 



17) 5t;h Sunday after Easter. John 16. 



Day's Length, 13h. 24m. 



29 
30 


Sun. 
Mon. 


5 18 
5 17 


6 42 
6 43 



12 49 King Edward IV, of England, born, 1441 
1 35 Louisiana purchased from France by U. S. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5643. — April 7, Parshes Hachodesh— 8, Bosh 
Hodesh Nissan— 21, Hagodol— 22 & 23, First days of Pesach— 28 «fc 29, Last 
days of Pesach. ♦ 



10 



Richard Frotscker^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



5th Month. 



MAY 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Lathude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon , 6d 4b. 37m. 

First Quarter 13d. 5h. 33m. 

Full Moon 21d. 9h. 50m. 

LastQuartcr 29d. 9h. Im. 



Afternoon. 
Evening. 
Evening. 
Morning. 



DAT 


"Sun 


Snn 


Moon 


CHKONOI.OGY 


OF 


rises. 


sets. 


r. <fc s. 


OF — 


Month & Feek. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


IMPORT AM EVEMS. 


1 


J ues. 


5 16 


6 44 


2 20 


8t. Philip and Si. James, Apostles 


2 


Wed. 


5 15 


6 45 


2 48 


William Camden, born, 1.551 


3 


Thurs. 


5 14 


6 46 


3 20 


Ascension Day 


4 


FrJ. 


5 14 


6 46 


3 49 


Dr* Isaac Barrow, Eng. divine, died, 1677 


5 


Sat. 


5 13 


6 47 


4 19 


Emperor Justinian, born, 482 



18) 6th Sunday after Easter. Jobn 15. 



Day's Length, 13h. 36m. 



6 


hun. 


5 12 


6 48 


sets. 


Humboldt, dit-d, 1859 


7 


Mun. 


5 11 


6 49 


8 10 


St. Benedict II, Pope, Confessor, 686 


8 


rues. 


5 10 


6 50 


9 I 


Stonewall Jackson, died, 1863 


9 


^ed. 


5 10 


6 50 


9 52 


Battle of Spottsylvania, 1864 


10 


Thurs. 


5 9 


6 51 


10 36 


Pacific Railroad finished, 1869 


11 


Fri. 


5 8 


6 52 


11 16 


Madame Ricamire, died, 1849 


12 


<at. 


5 7 


6 53 


11 50 


St. Pancraa, Martyr, 304 



19) Whit Sunday. 



John 14. 



Day's Length, 13h. 48m, 



^uu. 

Mon. 

Toes. 

Wei. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



5 6 


6 54 


inorn. 


5 5 


6 55 


12 22 


5 5 


6 55 


12 59 


5 4 


6 56 


1 29 


5 3 


6 57 


1 59 


5 2 


6 58 


2 30 


5 2 


6 58 


3 10 



Jamestown, Va., settled, 16u7 

Battle of Crown Point. 1775 

St. Isidore, died, 1170 

Sir William Petty, born, 1623 

J. Jay, died, 1829 

Napoleon I, elected Emperor, 1804 

Sr. Dnr.stan, Arohbishon of Canterbury, 988 



20) Trinity Sunday, 



John 3. 



Day's Length, 13h. 58m. 



20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 



Snn. 


5 1 


Mon. 


5 


Tues. 


4 59 


Wt^d. 


4 58 


rhurs. 


4 58 


Fri. 


4 57 


Sat, 


4 57 



6 59 



3 51 
Jises. 

8 28 

9 15 
10 5 

10 52 

11 30 



Hawthorn, died, 1864 

Columbus, died, 1506 

Title of Baronet first conferred, 1611 

Napoleon I, crowned King of Italy, 1805 

Corpus C^iristi 

Battle of Winchester, 1864 

Fort Erie captured, 1813 



21) 1st Sunday after Trinity. Luke 16. 



Day's Length, 14h. 8m, 



27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



ban. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 



4 56 


7 4 


morn 


4 56 


7 4 


12 18 


4 55 


7 5 


12 53 


4 55 


7 5 


1 24 


4 54 


7 6 


1 49 



Dante, poet, born, 1265 

Noah Webster, difd, 1843 

Paris .burned, 1871 

Pe'or the Great, of Ruj^sia, born, 1672 

Joan of Arc. burned, 1431 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts, 



-5643.— May 7 & 8, Rosh Hodesh lyar— 25, Lag 
Beomer. 



Fo'i the Southern States. 



11 



6th Month. 



JUNE. 



30 Days. 



Calculafed for the Laiitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon Txl. 121i- 51in. Morning. 

First Quarter 12d. 9h. 20m. Morning. 

Full Moon 20d. llh. 10m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 27d. 21i. 16m. Afternoon. 



DAY Sun 
OF rises. 
Month & Week. h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 
r..& 8. 
h. m.. 


CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


i 
2 


Fri. 

Sat. 


4 54 
4 54 


7 6 


2 20 
2 55 


Battle of Seven Pines, ld62 
Battle of CoJd Harbor, 18(i4 


22) 2d Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. Day's Length, 14h. 


14m. 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat, 



4 53 


7 7 


3 27 1 


4 53 


7 7 


4 1 


4 52 


7 8 


sets. 


4 52 


7 8 


7 58 


4 51 


7 9 


8 46 


4 51 


7 9 


9 30 


4 51 


7 9 


10 



3 27 IS A. Douglas, died, io61 

Lord K Dudley, Earl of Leicester, marr'dA 

J. Pradier, Sculptor, died 1852 [Robsart, 1550 

Surrenaer of Memphis, Tenn., 1862 

First American Congress at New York, 1765 

Emperor Nero, died, 68, Rome 

Charles Dickens, died, 1870 



23) 3d Sunday after Trinity . Luke 15. 



Day's Length, 14h. 18m. 



10 


Suu. 


4 bi 


7 9 


10 38 


Btillle of tiig lielh. 1, 1661 


11 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 10 


Sir John Franklin, died, 1847 


12 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 54 


Harriet Martineau, Novelist, born, 1802 


13 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


(noru. 


General Scott, born, 1786 


14 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


12 25 


St. Basil the Great, 379 


15 


Fri, 


4 50 


7 10 


1 8 


Magna Charter, 1215 


16 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


1 37 


Kdward I, of Et>gla>'d, born, 12,39 



24) 4th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 6. 



Day's Length, 14h. 20m, 



17 


Sua. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 9 


Battle of Banker Hul, 1775 


18 


Mon. 


4 49 


7 11 


2 46 


War declared against Great Britain, 1812 


19 


Tues. 


4 49 


7 U 


3 31 


Kearsage sunk the Alabama, 1864 


20 


Wed. 


4 49 


7 11 


rises 


St. Silverius, Pope and Martyr. 538 


21 


Thurs. 


4 48 


7 12 


8 11 


Aotbony Collins, born, 1676 


22 


Fri. 


4 49 


7 U 


8 48 


Vapoleon I, abdicated 1815 


23 


Sat. 


4 49 


7 11 


9 26 


Battle of S.»]f«rino, 1S59 



25) 5th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 5. 



Day's Length, 14h. 22m , 



24 


Sun. 


4 49 


7 11 


10 2 


Nativity ot Sc. J»»hu the Baptist 


25 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 38 


Battle of Bmnochburn 


26 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


U 10 


Dr. Philip Doddrige, born, 1702 


27 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 40 


John Murray, Publisher, died, 1843 


28 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


morn . 


Queen Victoria, crowned, 1838 


29 


Fri. 


4 50 


7 10 


12 31 


St Peter the Apostle, 68 


30 


Sat. • 


4 50 


7 10 


I 26 


Bishon Gavin l^nnbar. died. 1547 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5643. — June 6, Rosh Hodesh Si van — 11 and 12 

Shebuoth . 



12 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual. 



7th Month. 



JULY 



31 Days. 



Calculaied for the Latitude of Southern States. 
MOOK'S PHASES. 

New Moon 4d. 9h. 42m. Morning. 

First Quarter 12(3. 2h. 28m. Morning. 

Fall Moon 19d. lOh. 9m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 26d. 6h. 52m. Evening. 



DAY Sun. 


Snn 


Moon 


OF rises. 


sets. 


r. & s 


Month & Week. h. m 


h. m 


h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



26) 6th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 5. 



Day's Length, 14h. 20m. 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



4 50 


7 lU 


2 21 


4 51 


7 9 


3 


4 51 


7 9 


3 54 


4 51 


7 9 


8et8. 


4 51 


7 9 


7 46 


4 52 


7 8 


8 21 


4 52 


7 8 


8 51 



Battle of Malverti Hill, 1862 
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
Quebec founded, 1608 
sets.j Independence of the United States, 1776 
Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died, 1537 
Th. More, CI aucel. of Eng. beheaded, 1535 
Dr. Th. Blackloek, "the blind poe^" died. 



27) 7th Sunday after Trinity. Mark 8. 



Day's Length, 14h. 14m. 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues . 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



4 53 


7 7 


9 20 


4 53 


7 7 


9 48 


4 54 


7 6 


10 'iO 


4 54 


7 6 


10 51 


4 55 


7 5 


U 24 


4 55 


7 5 


morn . 


4 56 


7 4 


12 5 



•lohn de la Fontaine, born, 1621 [1791 

Zachary Taylor, died, 1850 

•Johu Calvin, theologian, born, 1509 

J. Q. Adams, born, 1767 

Robt. Stevenson, engineer, etc., died, 1850 

Dog days begin 

John Hunter, eminent surgeon, born, 1728 



28) 8th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 7. 



Day's Length, 14h. 8m. 



15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



4 56 


7 4 


12 52 


4 57 


7 3 


1 45 


4 57 


7 3 


2 47 


4 58 


7 2 


3 57 


4 58 


7 2 


rises 


4 59 


7 1 


7 48 


5 


7 


8 26 



S . Switnm's day 

Great riot in Nevs^ York city, 1863 

Dr. Isaac Watts, born, 1647 

St. Symphorosia and 7 sons, Martyrs, 120 

St. Vincent de Paul, confessor, 1660 

Confed. Congress at Richmond, 1861 

Battle of Bull Ron, 1861 



29) 9th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 16. 



Day's Length, 13h. 58m. 



22 


Sun. 


5 1 


6 59 


9 


Urania discovered, ltt24 


23 


Mon. 


5 1 


6 59 


9 32 


First Olympiad, 776, B. C. 


24 


Tues. 


5 2 


6 58 


10 6 


Curran, born, 1750 


25 


Wed. 


5 2 


6 58 


10 36 


St. James the Great 


26 


Thurs. 


5 3 


6 57 


11 14 


Flood at Pittsburg, 1874 


27 


Fri. 


5 4 


6 56 


morn. 


Atlantic cable, laid, 1866 


28 


Sat, 


5 4 


6 56 


12 12 


Battle befor*^ Atlanta,. Ga., 1864 



30) 10th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 19. 



Day's Length, 13h. 50m. 



29 
30 
31 



Sun. 
Mon. 
Tues. 



5 5 


6 55 


12 56 


5 6 


6 54 


1 36 


5 7 


6 53 


2 30 



Albert I, Emp. oi Germany, born, 1289 
Westfleld Explosion, N. Y. Harbor, 1871 
St. lirnatius, Lovola, died, 1556. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5643.— July 5, Rosh Hodesh Tamooz— 20, Zom 

Tamooz. 



For the Southern States. 13 




8th Month. AUGUST. 31 Days. 




Calculated for the Latitude of ihe Southern States. 




MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 2d. 8h. 5m. Evening. 

First Quarter lOd. 8h. 8m. Evening. 

Full Moon ISd. 7h. .T2m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 25d. 12h. 10m. Morning. 




DAY 
OP 

Month A Week . 


Snn 
rises- 
h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 
r. & 8, 
h. m. 


CHRONOI.OGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 




1 

2 
3 
4 


^ed- 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 


5 7 
5 8 
5 9 
5 10 


6 53 
6 52 
6 51 
6 50 


3 47 

sets. 
7 13 
7 33 


Harriet Lee, >ov«li8t, died, 1851 
Meheraed Ali, Pasha of Egypt, died, 1849 
Orown Poiot taken, 1759 
J'>hn Banim, Irish Novelist, died, 1842 




31) 11th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 18. Day s Length, 13h. 38m. 




O 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


San. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fii. 

Sat. 


5 11 
5 12 
5 13 
5 13 
5 14 
5 15 
5 16 


6 49 
6 48 
6 47 
6 47 
6 46 
6 45 
6 44 


8 5 

8 29 

9 I 
9 37 

10 19 
U 2 

11 51 


Frrst Atlantic Cable landed, 1858 

Transtiguration of our Lord 

LHonidas, Spartan H«ro, slaiu, 480, B. C 

Fr. Hutcheson, Moral Philos., born, 1694 

Isaac Walton, born, 1593 

Battle of Weiaenburjr, 1870 

Viscount Rowland Hill, born, 1772 




32) 12th Sunday after Trinity. Mark 7. Day's Length, 13h. 26m. 




. 12 

13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

18 


Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs . 

Fri. 

Sat. 


5 17 
5 18 
5 19 
5 20 
5 21 
5 22 
5 23 


6 43 
6 42 
6 41 
6 40 
6 39 
6 38 
6 37 


morn . 
12 54 

1 44 

2 41 

3 27 

4 4 
rises. 


Pope Gregory IX, aiod, 1241 

Karthquake in Scotland, 1816 

G. Coleman, the elder, Dramatist, died, 1794 

Asct^nsion of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

Battle of Bennington, 1777 

Frederick the Great, died, 1786 

John, Earl Russell, born, 1792 




33) 13th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 10, Day's Length, 13h. 12m. 




19 
2U 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


Sun. 

Mon. 

Tnes- 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 


5 24 

5 25 
5 26 
5 27 
5 28 
5 29 
5 30 


6 ;5t) 
6 35 
6 34 
6 33 
6 32 
6 31 
6 30 


7 9 

7 42 

8 16 

8 51 

9 29 
10 6 
10 54 


Battle of Gravelotto, 1870 

Robert Herrick, English Poet, born, 1591 

Lady Mary Wortley Montague, died, 1762 

Dr F. J. Gall, founder of Phrenology, died, 

Wallace, beheaded, 1305 [ltt28 

St. Bartholomew, Apostle 

25fh or27r,h, Landing of Caesar in England. 




34) 14th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 17. Day's Length, 12h. 58m. 




26 

27 

28, 

29 

30 

31 


Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 


5 31 
5 32 
5 33 
5 34 
5 35 
5 36 


6 29 
6 28 
6 27 
6 26 
6 25 
6 24 


11 36 
morn 

12 53 

2 2 

3 4 

4 8 


Sir Kob. Walpole, born* 1676 [55 B. C. 

Dog days end 

Leigh Hunt, died, 1859 

Tohn Locke, Philospher, born, 1632 

Union defeat at Richmond, Ky. 

John Biinyan, died, 1683 




Jewish Festivals and Fasts— 5643.— August 4, Rosh HodeshAb— 11, Chason— 
12, Tiaho beab— 17, Nachmu— 18, Shamisho osor. 





14 



Richard Frotscher's Almwnac and Garden Manual. 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOOIS^'S PHASES. 

New Moon Id. 8h. 53m 

First Quarter 9d. Ih . 16m 

FullMoou iDd. 4h. QOm. 

Last Quarter 23d. 7b. ^Om 



Morning. 
Afternoon. 
Afternoon . 
Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

MoBtli&Week 


Sun 
rises. 
h. m. 


Sun 
sets, 
h. m, 


Aloon 
r. <5c s 
h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
1 MI OH TJ.JS T E TENTS . 



1 |Sac, 



i 5 37 j 6 23 jsets. INapoleon 111 capturHd at Seaau. 187U 



35) lotli Sunday after Trinity . Matth. 6. 



Daj's Length, 12h. 44m. 



2 


San. 


5 38 


t) 22 


7 


Great tire m Luiidou, lt>66 




3 


MLon. 


5 31) 


6 21 


7 oO 


Cromwell died, 1658 




4 


rues. 


5 40 


6 20 


7 58 


Pindar. Lvnc poet, 518, B. C. 




5 


Wed. 


5 42 


6 18 


8 28 


Confederates entered Marjiand. 


1862 


6 


Thurs. 


5 43 


6 17 


9 10 


Geo. Alex. Stevens, writer, died, 


1784 


7 


Fri. 


5 44 


6 16 


9 51 


ladependence "f Brazil, 1822 




8 


Sat. 


5 45 


6 15 


10 40 


Xarivity of the Bles-ed Virgin 





36) 16tli Sunday after Trinity . Lnke 



Day's Length, 12h. 28m. 



9 


Snn. 


5 46 


6 14 


11 34 


James lY. oi Scutiand. killed, 1513 


10 


Mon. 


5 47 


6 13 


morn. 


Mungo Park, Atricaa Traveier. born, 1771 


11 


Tues. 


5 48 


6 12 


12 45 


James Thomson, uoat. boin 1700 


12 


Wed. 


5 49 


6 11 


1 47 


St. Guv, Coufessjr, 11th ceuturv 


13 


Thurs. 


5 50 


6 10 


2 51 


Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, born, 1.520 


14 


Fri. 


5 51 


6 9 


3 55 


ITprising 01 the people of X. O agaiast the uiurpinz gov'ment 


15 


Sat. 


5 52 


6 8 


5 


Cantnre Harper's Ferry by S'ewall Jackson 



37) 17th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. 



Day's Length. 12h. 14m. 



16 


Sun. 


5 53 


6 7 


rises. 


Gabriel Dau'i Fahreuneit, died. 1T36 [1862 


17 


Mon. 


5 54 


6 6 


6 24 


Battle of Antietam. 1862 


18 


Tues. 


5 55 


6 5 


7 


Gilbert Bishop Bnruet. hist'an. born, 1643 


19 


Wed. 


5 56 


6 4 


7 40 


First battle of Paris, 1870 


20 


Thurs - 


5 57 


6 3 


8 34 


Alexander the Great, borii. 356 B. C. 


21 


Fri. 


5 58 


6 2 


9 24 


St. Mathew. Apostle and Evangelist 


22 


Sat. 


5 58 


6 1 


10 22 


Beginniriff of Autumn 



38) 18th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. 



Day's Length, 12h. Om 



23 


Sun. 


6 


6 


11 22 jWm. Upcott, Manusc. CoUec, died. 1845 


24 


Mon. 


6 1 


5 59 


morn. jPepin. King of France. 763 


25 


Tues. 


6 2 


5 58 


12 14 jPacific Ocean discovered, 1513 


26 


Wed. 


6 3 


5 57 


1 14 Saints Cyprian and Justina, Martvrs. 304 


27 


Thurs . 


6 4 


fy 56 


2 12 Srrassburcrfeil, 1870 


28 


Fri. 


6 5 


5 55 


3 12 'Sir Wm. Jones. Oriental Scholar, born, 1746 


29 


Sat. 


6 7 


5 53 


4 13 iMichaelmas Day 



39) 19th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. 



Day's Length, llh. 44m. 



30 !Sun 



6 8 i 5 52 i 5 16 lYorktown invested. 1781, 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5643.— September 2 & 3, Eosh Hodesh Elul— 23, 

Selicos. 



For the Southern States. 



15 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon Id. 12h. '23ro- Morning. 

First Quarter 9d. 5h. Om. Morning. 

Full Moon 16d- Ih. '24m. Morning . 

Last Quarter - .- 22d. 5h. 27m. Evening. 

New Moon ..30d. 6h. 35m. Evening. 



DAT 


Sun. 


• Sun 


Moon 


CHRONOLOGY 


OF 


rises. 


sets. 


r. &s. 


— OF— 


Month <fe Week 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


IMPORT AliT EVENTS. 


1 


Mon. 


6 9 


5 51 


sets . 


Falcon's iirst Steamboac trip, 1807 


2 


Tues. 


6 10 


5 50 


6 33 


Andr6 executed as a spy, 1780 


3 


Wed. 


«) 11 


5 49 


7 12 


Black Hawk, died, 1838 


4 


Thurs. 


6 12 


5 48 


7 57 


Battle of Germautown, 1777 


5 


Fri. 


6 14 


5 46 


8 48 


Hora^,e Walpole, born. 1717 


6 


Sat. 


6 15 


5 45 


9 35 Jenny Lind, born, 1820 



40) 20th Sunday after Trinity. Mattb.22. 



Day's Length, llh. 2«m. 



7 


Sun. 


6 16 


5 44 


10 46 


Margaret, Maid of Norway, died, 1290 


8 


Mon. 


6 17 


5 43 


11 54 


Battle of Perry ville, Ky., 1862 


9 


Tues. 


6 18 


5 42 


morn. 


Great fire in Chicago, 1871 


10 


Wed. 


6 19 


5 41 


12 57 


Benjamin West, Painter, born, 1738 


11 


Thurs. 


6 20 


5 40 


2 7 


America discovered, 1492 


12 


Fri. 


6 21 


5 39 


3 1 


St. Wilfrid, Bishoo of York, 709 


13 


Sat. 


6 22 


5 38 


3 53 


Battle of Queenstown, 1812 



41) 21st Sunday after Trinity. .Tohn 4, 



Day's Length, llh. 12m. 



14 
15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 



feun. 


6 24 


Mon. 


6 25 


Tues. 


6 25 


Wed. 


6 26 


Thurs. 


6 27 


Fri. 


6 28 


Sat. 


6 29 



4 36 

5 28 
rises . 

6 26 

7 7 

7 52 

8 40 



Battle of Jena, 1806 

Virgil, Latin Poet, born, 70 B. C. 

Marie Antoinette, beheaded, 1793 

Burgoyne, surrendered, 1777 

Last State Lottery drawn, in Engl , 1826 

Cornwallis surrendered, 1681 

M. Dahl, Swed. Portrait Painter, died, 1743 



42) 


22d Sunday after Trinity. 


Matth. 18. Day's Length, llh. Om. 


21 


Sun. 


6 30 


5 30 


9 30 


Battle of Trafalgar, 1805 


22 


Mon. 


6 32 


5 28 


10 22 


Charles Martel, died, 741 


23 


Tues. 


G 33 


5 27 


U 20 


Dr. John Jortin, Ciitic, born, 1698 


24 


Wed. 


6 34 


5 26 


morn. 


Daniel Webster, died. 1852 


25 


Thurs. 


6 35 


5 25 


12 18 I Dr. James Beattie, Poet, born, 1735 


26 


Fri. 


6 36 


5 24 


1 26 Hogarth, died, 1765 


27 


Sat. 


6 37 


5 23 


2 27 Cuba discovered, 1492 



43) 23d Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. 



Day's Length, lOh. 14m. 



28 


Sun. 


6 38 


5 22 


3 40 


Battle at White Plains 1776 


— 


29 


Mon. 


6 39 


5 21 


4 46 


Surrender of Metz, 1870 




30 


Tues. 


6 40 


5 20 


sets. 


Solomon's Temple dedicated, 1004 B. C. 




31 IWed. 


6 41 


5 19 


2 55 


k\\ Hallow Eve 





Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5643.— October 2 «fe 3, Resh Hashanah— 5644— 4, 

Zom Gedaljah— 11, Yom Kippnr— 15 & 16, First days Sukkos- 24, 

Simohas Thoro. 



16 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual. 



11th Month. 



NOVEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 7d. 6h. 43m. Evening. 

Fnll Moon 14d. lib. ICm. Morning. 

Last Quarter -.21d. 8h- 22m. Morning. 

New Moon 29d. Ih. 33m. Afternoon. 



CHKONOL-OGY 

— oF- 
jjsfPOur^^T EVENTS, 

All Saints Day- 
All Souls Day 
Malachy, Archbishop of Armagrh, 1148 



DAT 

OF 

Month & Week 


Sun 
rises. 
h. m. 


Sun 
sets. 
h. m. 


Moont 
r <fe8. 
h.. m. 


1 
2 
3 


rhurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 


6 42 
6 42 
6 44 


5 18 
5 18 
5 16 


6 44 

7 40 

8 44 



44) 24th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. 



Day's Length, lOh. 30m. 



4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tnes. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Fri. 

Sat. 



6 4.5 


5 15 


9 37 


6 45 


5 15 


10 24 


% 46 


5 14 


11 12 


6 47 


5 13 


morn. 


6 48 


5 12 


12 8 


6 49 


5 11 


1 16 


6 50 


5 10 


2 26 



George Fnabocly, died, 1869 

The American 74 launched, 1782 

Battle of Port Royal, 1861 

John Kyrle, "The man of Ross," died, 1724 

Cortex entered Mexico, 1519 

Great fire in B ston, 1872 

Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born, 570 



45) 25th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 24. 



Day's Length, lOh. 18m. 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



Sun, 


6 51 


Mon. 


6 52 


Tues. 


6 53 


Wed. 


6 54 


Thurs. 


6 54 


Fri. 


6 55 


Sat. 


6 56 



3 33 

4 33 

5 34 

rises. 

5 49 

6 37 

7 27 



Martinmas 

Sherman left Atlanta, 1864 

French entered Vienna, 1805 

Sir Chas. Lyell, Geologist, born, 1797 

John Keppler, great Astronomer, died, 1630 

Tiberius, Roman Emperor, barn, 42 B. 0. 

Suez Canal opeD»^d. 1^69 



46) 26th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 25. 



Day's Length, lOh. 6m 



18 [Sun. 

19 Mon. 



20 
21 
22 
23 



Tues. 
Wed. 
Thurs. 
Fri. 



24 Sat. 



6 57 


5 3 


8 20 


6 57 


5 3 


9 15 


6 58 


5 2 


10 7 


6 59 


5 1 


11 3 


6 59 


5 1 


morn. 


7 


5 


12 8 


7 1 


4 59 


1 24 



Fort Lee taken by ihe Briiiwh 1776 
St Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow, 1231 
Thomas Chatterton, Poet, born, 1752 
Presentation of the Blessed Virgin 
Professor Dngald Steward, born, 1753 
Th. Henderson, Prof, of AsT >n , died, 1844 
Battle of Lookout Mountain. 1863 



47) 27th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 15. 



Day's Length, 9h. 58m. 



25 


bun. 


7 1 


4 59 


2 31 


Evacuation of New Yorls:, 1783 


26 


Mon. 


7 2 


4 58 


3 42 


John Elwes noted miser, died, 1789 


27 


Tues. 


7 2 


4 58 


4 54 


Steam Printing. 1814 


28 


Wed. 


7 3 


4 57 


6 16 


Washington Irving, died, 1859 


29 


Thurs. 


7 3 


4 57 


sets. 


Sir Philip Sidney, Poet, born, 1554 


30 


Fri. 


7 4 


4 56 


6 10 


U. S. took nos8»^88ion of Louisiana, 1803 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5644.— November 1, Second day Heshan- 30, 
Rosh Hodesh Kislev. 



For the Southern States. 



17 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 7d. 6h. 'Z^m. Morning. 

Fall Moon 13d. lOh. 7m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 21d. 2h. 47m. Mornino:. 

New Moon 2yd. 7h. 38ai. Morniug. 



DAY 

OP 

Month & Week 


Sun 
rises. 
h. m. 


Sun Moou 
sets. r. & s. 
h- m. h. m. 


CHKONOLOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 IS*t. 1 7 6 1 4 55 1 6 47 jPrincess A. Comnena, HJsr,<»rid.ii, born, 083 


48) Ist Sunday in Advent- Matth. 21. Day's Length, 9h. 48m. 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Taes. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Pri. 

Sat. 



7 () 


4 54 


7 33 


7 6 


4 54 


8 27 


7 7 


4 53 


9 23 


7 7 


4 53 


10 17 


7 7 


4 53 


11 21 


7 8 


4 52 


morn . 


7 8 


4 52 


12 15 



Hernau Cortea, died, 1547 

Robert Bloomfit^ld. Poet, born, 1776 

Pope John XXII, di(>d, 1334 

Carlyle, born, 1795 

St. Nicholas, Archbishop of Myra, 342 

Cicero, Roman orator, assassinated, 43 B. C. 

Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virofin 



49; 2d Sunday in Advent. 



Luke 21. 



Day's Length, 9b. 44m. 



9 ISan. 


7 8 


4 52 


i 38 


.Vtiltoa, born, 1608 


10 


Mon. 


7 9 


4 51 


2 51 


Louis Napoleon, elected President, 1848 


11 


Taes. 


7 9 


4 51 


3 58 


Louis, Prince of Conde, died 1686 


12 


Wed. 


7 9 


4 51 


5 14 


Sr,. Columba, Abbot in Ireland, 584 


13 


Thurs. 


7 9 


4 51 


rises. 


Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862 


14 


Fri. 


7 10 


4 50 


5 48 


Washington, died, 1799 


15 


Sat. 


7 10 


4 50 


6 58 


David D')n, Botanist, died, 1841 



50) 3d Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 11, 



Day's Length, 9h. 40m. 



16 Saa. 


7 lu 


4 50 


8 7 


Ureat Fire iu New York, 1835 


17 Mon. 


7 10 


4 50 


8 54 


Ludw, Beethoven, emin. com p., born, 1770 


18 ITnes. 


7 11 


4 49 


9 43 


St. Winebald, Abbot and Gonfesaor, 760 


19 


Wed. 


7 11 


4 49 


10 29 


Capt.W. Ed. Parry, Arct. Nav., born, 1790 


20 


Thurs. 


7 11 


4 49 


11 15 


Secession ord. passed in S. Carolina, 1860 


21 


Fri. 


7 12 


4 48 


morn. 


St. Thomas, Apostle 


2Z 


Sat . 


7 11 


4 49 


12 6 


Emo. VeteUins, bohoaded at Rome. 69 A. D. 



51^ 


4th Sunday in 


Advent 




John 1. Day's Length, 9h. 38m. 


23 Sdn. 


7 11 


4 49 


1 15 


Newton. b»>rn 164^5 


24 


Mon. 


7 11 


4 49 


2 22 


Treaty of Ghent, 1814 


25 


TUQS. 


7 10 


4 50 


3 30 


Nativity of our Lord. Christmas Day 


26 


Wed- 


7 10 


4 50 


4 36 


Battle of Trenton, 1776 


27 


Thurs. 


7 10 


4 50 


5 44 


St. John, Apostle and Evangelist 


28 


Fri. 


7 10 


4 50 


6 40 


Macaulev, died, 1859 


29 


Sat. 


7 9 


4 51 


RfttS. 


Union ronnlsf^d at Vif.ksbnrar. Miss., 1862 



52) Sunday after Christmas. Luke 2. 



Day's Length, 9h 42m. 



30 Sun . 

31 Mon, 



9 4 51 b 24 Hiius, Komaa ii^mpoivr, b «in, 41 A. L>. 
9 4 51 7 33 Battle of MnrfreHsh'.ro, 1S62 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts-— 5644.— December 24, Shanukah— 30, Rosh 
Hodesh Thebet. 



18 Richard Frotscher^s Almana<} and Garden Manual 



THE VEGETABLE GAEDEN. 



The size depends upon tlie purposes for \Yhicli it is intended ; 
whether the family is huge or small, and the time which can be 
devoted to its cultivation '1 he most suitable soil for a garden is 
a light loam. When the soil is too heavy, it ought to be made 
light by applying stable manure, and workiug up the ground 
thoroughly. Trenching as done in Europe, or North, is not ad- 
visable, at least where there is any coco, as by trenching the 
roots of this pest will get so deeply incorporated with the soil that 
it will be very hard afterwards to get rid of it. Exposure to- 
wards the east is desirable. If there are one or more large trees 
in the garden, or on the immediate outside, their shade can be 
used in which to sow Celery, Cabbage and other seeds during the 
hot summer months, which will be an advantage. The seed beds 
for this purpose should be so arranged as to receive only the 
morning or evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that 
the ground should be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible 
to raise good vegetables. The most reliable manure for general 
purposes is well decomposed stable or barnyard manure. Manure 
from cows will suit best for light, sandy soil ; horse manure for 
heavy, stiff clay lands. For special purposes, Peruvian G-uano, 
Blood Fertilizer, Eaw Bone, Cotton Seed Meal and other com- 
mercial manures may be employed with advantage. Where the 
land is very sandy, cotton seed meal has the most lasting effect. 
For quick growing crops, such as Melons, Cucumbers, etc., the 
Blood Fertilizer and Guano applied in the hills, is very good. 
Soap suds are good for Celery; it is astonishing to perceive the 
difference in the size of those stalks which are watered every few 
days with the suds and others on the same ground, which are not. 
Wood ashes are best for Peas, either used as a top dressing when 
the peas just come out of the ground, or else sprinkled in the 
rows when planted. The New Orleans market gardeners raise as 
fine vegetables as can be produced anywhere ; in fact, some vari- 
eties cannot be excelled, and very few gardeners use anything 
but stable manure. 

Kotatioii of crops is another important item. Beets,- 
Carrots and other roots should not be grown in succession on the 
same ground, but should be changed to those which grow above 
ground, such as Lettuce, Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, good 
ground and good cultivation are essential in order to raise good 
vegetables. When plants are up the ground should be stirred 
frequently 5 weeds ought not to be suffered to go into seed, but 
should be destroyed as soon as they appear. Hoeing and work- 
ing the young crops during dry weather is very beneficial be- 



For the Soutliern States. 



19 



cause tlie weeds are then easily killed, and hoeing the ground, 
will make it retain moisture better than if it were left alone. 




THE HOT BED. 



OAving to the open Winters in the South, hot beds are not so 
much used as in the North, except to raise such tender plants as 
Egg-Plants, Tomatoes and Peppers There is little forcing of 
vegetables done here, except as regards Cucumbers and Lettuce ; 
and if we do not have any hard frosts the latter does better in the 
open ground than under glass. To make a hot bed is a very sim- 
ple thing. Any one who has the use of tools can make the wooden 
frame ; the sashes may be obtained froui any sash factory. I con- 
sider a wooden frame from five to six feet wide, and ten feet six 



inches long, a very 



good 



size. It should be at least six inches 



higher at the back than in the front, and covered by three sashes 
.'3^x5 feet. The manure ought not to be over one month old ; 
should be thrown togetlier in a heap, and when commencing to 
heat, be worked over with a fork, and all the long and short ma- 
nure evenly mixed. In this State the grouod is generally low, 
and to retain the heat of the manure for a longer time it is best 
to put the manure on top of the ground — that is, make a bank 
two feet longer and two wider than the fVame. Keep the edges 
straight aiul the corners firm when thrown up about eighteen 
inches, trample the manure down to six or eight inches, then put 
on another layer of eighteen inches and trample down again ; place 
thereon the frame and sash and fill in six inches of good earth. 
After about five days stir the ground to kill the weeds which may 
have come ux), then sow the seeds. In lower Louisiana the 



20 Richard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 

ground is too wet to dig out eighteen inches deep and then throw 
in the manure and trample down as recommended in the North. 
A few haiTl rains, such as we frequently have in winter, and the 
manure would become so soaked beneath the ground that the 
heat would be gone. Another advantage, when the frame is put 
above the ground is, that it will go down with the manure gradu- 
ally, and there remains always the same space between the glass 
and the ground. If the ground is dug out and the manure i)ut 
into the frame, the ground will sink down so low after a short 
time that the sun will have little effect upon it, and plants will 
become spindly. 



SOWING eEEDS, 



Some seeds are sown at once where they are to remain and 
mature. Others are sown in seed beds and transplanted after- 
wards. Seeds should be covered according to their size, a cover- 
ing of earth twice the size of the seed is about the maximum. 
Some seeds, such as Beans, Corn and Peas, can be covered from 
one to two inches, and they will come up well. Here is a differ- 
ence again: Wrinkled Peas and Sugar Corn have to be covered 
lighter and more carefully than Marrowfat Peas or the common 
varieties of Corn. It depends upon the nature of the soil, season 
of the year, etc. For instance, in heavy wet soil seeds have to 
be covered lighter than in sandy light ground. Seeds which are 
sown during "summer in the open ground, such as Beets and Car- 
rots, should be soaked over night in water and rolled in ashes or 
plaster before sowing ; they will come up quicker. When they 
are sown in a seed bed, the ground should be light enough not to 
bake after a rain. Some varieties of seeds require shade when 
sown during the summer, such as Caulitlower, Celery and Let- 
tuce. Care should be taken to have the shade at least three feet 
from the ground, and shade only after the sun has been on the 
bed for two or three hours, and remove again early in the after- 
noon, so the plants may become sturdy. If too much shaded they 
will be drawn up, long-legged, and not lit to set out in the open 
ground. The most successful cabbage-planters in this neighboi- 
hood sow their s^ed in the open ground, towards the end of July 
and during August, and give them no shade, but water and keep 
the ground moist from the day of sowing till the ])lants are trans- 
planted. Seed should be sown thinly in the seed bed. If plants 
come up too thickly they are apt to damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted during the hot months before 
sowing, according to directions given for June. 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early 
fall months, the ground should be prepared in advance, and the 
seed sown just before or during a rain. Small pieces of ground, 



Fo'i the Southern States. 



21 



of course, can be sown at any time and watered afterwards. For 
covering all kinds of seeds a fork is preferable to a rake ; with 
either implement care must be taken not to cover the seeds too 
deep. Beans, Peas and Corn are covered with the hoe. Some 
fine seeds, such as Thyme or Tobacco, are covered enough when 
pressed with the back of the spade to the ground. The seedsman 
is often blamed for se'liiig seeds which have not come up, when 
the same are perfectly good, but, ])erhaps, through ignorance the 
party by whom they were sown placed them too deep or too shal- 
low in the ground j or the ground may have been just moist 
enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At other 
times washing rains after sowing beat the ground and form a 
crust that the seeds are not able to penetrate 5 or if there is too 
much fresh manure in the ground it will burn the seed and destroy 
its vitality. 

Where seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, 
are planted before it is warm enough, they are very apt to rot if 
it rains. 




22 



Richard Frotscher'a Almanac and Garden Manual 



The following Tables will be found useful to the 
Gardener, Farmer and Amateur. 



QUANTITY OF SEED USUALLY SOWN UPON AN ACRE. 



Beans, Dwarf, in drills. . . . H Bushels. 

Beans, Pole, in bills 10 to 1*2 Qts. 

Beets, iu drills .4 to 5 lbs. 

Broom Corn, in hills 8 to 10 Qts. 

Buckwheat 1 Bushel . 

Cabbage, iu beds to transplant. .1 lb. 

Carrots, in drills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Chinese Sugar Cane 12 Qts. 

Ciov^er, Red, alone 12 to 15 lbs. 

Clover, White, alone 10 to 12 lbs. 

Clover, Lucerne or Alfalfa. . . .12 lbs. 

Corn, in hills 8 to 10 Qts. 

Corn, for soiling 3 Bushels. 

Cucumber, in hilJs .2 lbs. 

Hemp 1^ Bushels. 

Mustard, broadcast i Bushel. 

Melon, Musk, in hills 2 to 3 lbs. 

Melon, Water, in hills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Millet, broadcast 1 Bushel. 



Oats, broadcast 2 to 3 Bushels. 

Onion, in drills 5 to 6 lbs. 

Onion, for Sets, in drills 20 lbs. 

Onion, Sets, in drills. .6 to 12 Bushels, 

Parsnip, in drills 4 to 6 lbs. 

P^as, in drills H Bushels. 

Peas, broadcast 3 Bushels. 

Potato, (cut tubers) 10 Bushels 

Pumpkin, in hills 4 to 6 lbs. 

Radish, in drills .8 to 10 lbs. 

Sage, in drills 8 to 10 lbs. 

SaL-ify, in drills 8 to 10 lbs. 

Spinach, in diills 10 to 12 lbs. 

Squash, (bush var-) in hills. 4 to 6 lbs. 
Squash, (run'ing " ) m hills, 3 to 4 lbs. 

Tomato, to transplant i lb. 

Turnip, in drills i to 2 lbs. 

Turnip, broadcast 1 to 2 lbs. 



QUANTITY OF SEEDS REQUIRED FOR A GIVE-V NUMBER OF PLANTS. 



Number of Hills or Length, of Drills. 

Parsnip 1 oz to 200 leet of drill. 

Peas 1 qrtto 100 

Pumpkin 1 oz to 40 hills. 

Radish 1 oz to 100 feet of drill. 

Salsify 1 " 70 

j Spinach 1 " 100 " 

Sq uash 1 oz to 75 hills . 

j Turnip 1 oz to 150 feet of drill. 

j Cabbage 1 oz to 2000 plants. 

j Cauliflower .1 

Celery 1 

Egg Plant 1 

Lettuce 1 

Pepper 1 

Tomato 1 



JiTtimber of Hills or Lengtli of Drills. 

Asparagus 1 oz. to 60 feet of drill 

Beet 1 " 50 

Beans, Dwarf, 1 qt. to 100 " 

Beans, Pole I qrt. to 150 hills. 

Carrot 1 oz to 100 feet of drill . 

Cucumber. . ._ -. 1 oz to 75 hills. 

Corn 1 qt. to 200 hills. 

Endive 1 oz to 100 feet of drill. 

Leek 1 "100 

Melon, Water 1 oz to 30 hills. 

Melon, Musk 1 " 60 " 

Okra . 1 oz to 40 feet of drill . 

Onion 1 " 100 

Onion, Sets, small, 1 qt to 40 fc of drill. 
Parsley 1 oz to 125 feet of drill. 

Note. — The above calculations are made for the Spring 
the Summer months, twice the quantity of seed will be required for the same 
amount of plants. 

Table Showing Amount of Several Varieties of Grass Seed Necessary for an 
Acre, and the Number of Pounds in a Bushel. 



" 


2000 


(. 


" 


3000 


a 


'• 


1000 


i> 


(( 


3000 


(C 


<« 


1000 


(( 


(< 


1500 


11 


if 


sown 


iuring 



No. of lbs. 

to Bushel. 

Barley 48 

Blue Grass 14 

Orchard Grass 14 

Red Top Grass 14 

Hungarian Grass 48 



Quantity for 
One Acre. 
2 Bush. 
2 '' 
2 " 
2 " 
1 " 



No . of lbs . Quantity for 

to Bushel . One Acre . 

Millet, German 50 f Bush. 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass, 12 5 "- 

Rescue Grass 14 _ " ^ 

Timothy 45 f " 

Italian Rye Grass 20 3 •' 



For the Southern States. 



23 



Descriptive Catalogue of Vegetable Seeds. 

ARTICHOKE. 

Aktichaut (Fr.), Artischoke (Ger.), Alcachofa (Sp.). 




Green Globe Artichoke. 

Largfe Grlobe. This is a very popular vegetable iu the 
South, and much esteemed by the native as well as the foreign 
population from the South of Europe. It is extensively culti- 
vated for the New Orleans market. It is best propagated from 
suckers which come up around the large plants. Take them off 
during the fall and early winter months 5 plant them four feet 
apart each way. Every fall the ground should be manured and 
spaded or plowed between them. If planted by seed, sow them 
in drills during winter or early spring, three inches apart and one 
foot from row to row ; cover with about one-half inch of earth. 
The following fall the plants can be transplanted and cultivated 
as recommended above. The seed I offer are imported by me from 
Italy, and of suj)erior quality. 

ASPARAGUS. 

AsPERGE (Fr.), Spargel (Ger.), Esparagos (Sp.), 
Purple Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated 
in the South; not that it is not liked well enough, but from the 
fact that it does not succeed as well as in more Northern lati- 
tudes. It seems that it is short lived, the roots giving out soon 
or throwing up very small shoots. 

The ground should be well manured and prepared before 
either the roots or seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing 
of seed is preferable. Eoots are generally imported from the 
North, and I have found that the roots raised here, one year old, 
are as strong as those received from the North three years old. 



24 Richard FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 

Plant the seed in early spring. Soak overnight in water; plant in 
rows, or rather hills, one foot apart and two feet between : pntfi om 
four to five seeds in each hill : when well up thin ont to two plants. 
The following winter, when the stalks are cut off, cover with a 
heavy coat of well rotted manure and a sprinkling of salt; fish- 
biine will answer the same purpose. In the spring foikinthe 
manure between the rows and keep clean of weeds. The same 
treatment should be repeated e^ ery year. The bed should not be 
cut before being three years established. Caie must be taken not 
to cut the stalks too soon in the fall of the year — not until we have 
had a frost, if cut before it will cause the roots to throw up 
young shoots, which will weaken them. 

BUSH BEANS. 

CULTURE. 
Place in rows eighteen inches apart. Plant from end of Feb- 
ruary: and for succession every two or three weeks to May. Dur- 
ing June and July Bush Beans planted in this latitude will not 
produce much. August and September are good months in which 
to plant again : they will produce abundantly till killed by the 
fiost. Do not cover the seeds more than two inches. 

POLE BEANS. 

Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has be- 
come wai m in spring. Stt ong po'es ought to be set in the ground 
from four to six feet apart and the ground diawn around them 
before the seed is planted. It is always best to plant after a rain 
and with the eye of the bean down. The other varieties can be 
planted flat, and not more than th' ee to four feet apart, and hilled 
after they are up. Do not cover the seeds more than two inches ; 
one inch is enough for the Southern Pioliflc. 

BEANS— (DwiKP, Snap op. Bush.) 

HjLRIcots (Fr.), Bohne (Gter.), Frijolexaz^-q (Sp.) 

ExTEA Early Six Weeks, or New- WHrxE Kidxey. 

ingfon Wonder. I Eed Speckled French. 

Eaely Valentine Efd Speckled. Early China Eed-Eye. ' 
Early Mohawk Six Weeks. .■ Eed Kidney. 

Early Yellow Six Weeks. j Dwarf Golden Wax (new). 

German Dwarf Wax. [ 

Extra Early Six Weeks, or Xewington Wonder, is 

very early, but the pods are small and round. Good for family 
use. 

Early Valentine, one of the "best varieties ; pods round, 
tender and quite productive : not much planted for the market. 
Excellent for shipping. 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks. This is a long podded 
variety, and very hardy. It is used to a large extent for the 
market for the first planting ; very productive. 

Early Yellow Six Weeks. This is the most popular 
sort among market-gardeners. Pods flat and long: a very good 
bearer. 



For the Southern States. 



25 



Oeriiian Dwarf Wax. A new variety which is unsur- 
passed as a snap bean. Pods are of a wax color and have no 
strings; quite productive. Has come into general cultivation; 
cannot be too highly recommended. 

White Kidney. A good strong growing variety, not much 
plante<i. 

Red Speckled French is another strong growing variety, 
planted a good deal for ihe New Orleans market as a second cr.»p, 
being about ten days lat^r than the Mohawk and Yellow Six 
Weeks. It is hardy and productive. 

Karly China Red-Eye. Early and of good quality, but 
not very popular. 

Red Kidney. This variety is larg. ly planted for the Kew 
Orhaits market. Jt is a coarse growing variety, and much used 
for shelling when the pods turn yellow, so that the beans are well 
developed but soft yet- 

Dwari Golden Wax. (New.) A dwarf variety with flat 
pod^, lotiger than tho Dwarf German Wax ; entirely striugless; and 
white, mottled with purplish red. This variety will come into 
general cultivation, and will in time take the place of the black 
seeded Wax, being earlier and more })roductive. 

I have a number of new varieties on trial, which if they are 
good and profitable, I will introduce next year. 

BEANS> — Pole or Hunning. 



Haricots a Rames (Fr.), Stangen Bohnen (Ger.), Fkijol Vastago (Spau.). 



German Wax or*Butter. 

Southern Prolific. 
Crease Back. 



Large Lima. 
Carolina or Sewee. 
Horticultural or Wren's Egg. 
Dutch Case Knife. 

Large Lima. A well known and excellent variety. It is 
the bci^t shell bean known. Should have rich ground, and plenty 
room to grow. 

Carolina or Sewee, A variety similar to the Lima -, the 
only difteience is, the seeds and pods are smaller. It is generally 
cultivated, being more productive than the Large Lim;i. 

Horticultiiral or Wren's Egg*, does not grow very 
strong, bears weli, pods about six inches long, which are round- 
ish and very tender. 

Dutcli Case Knife. A very good pole bean ; it is early 5 
pods broiid and long, i^omewhat turned towards the end. 

German Wax. This is a fine variety, and has the same 
good qualities as the German Dwarf Wax. Pods have a waxy 
appearance; very succulent and tender. 

Southern Prolific. No variety will continue longer in 
bearing than this. It stands the heat of the summer better than 
any other, and is planted to succeed the other kind^. It is a 
very strong grower; pods about seven inches long, flat; seeds 
dark yellow or rather light brown. It is the standard variety for 
the JSew Orleans market for late spring and summer. 



26 



Bichard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 



Crease Back. A variety of Pole Bean which bas been cul- 
tivated in the South for a lon^ time, but has never come into the 
trade. It is an excellent bean, earlier than the ''Southern Pro- 
lific;" pods round, wi'h a crease in the back, from which the 
name. It is a good grower, bears abundantly, and if shipped will 
keep better tlian most other kinds. I had some grown for me 
this season and offer a limited suj^ply. 

ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Marais (Fr.), Puff Bohxe (Ger), Haba Comux (Sp.)- 
Broad Windsor, ^ot so much cultivated here as in some 
j)arts of Europe. It is much liked by the people of the Southern 
part of Euroiie. Ought to be planted during Xovember; as if 
planted in the spring they will not produce much. 

BEETS. 

Betrave (Fr.), Ruxkelruebe (Ger.), Eemolacha (Sp.) 



Extra Early or Bassaxo . 
SiMox's Early Eed Turxip. 
Early Blood Tukxip. 

LoXG Bl 'OD. 

Half Loxg Blood. 



Egyptiax Red Turxip. 
LoxG Red Max gel Wurzel. 
White Frexch Sugar. 
Silver or Swiss Chard. 



Culture, 

The ground for beets should be rich and well spaded or plow- 
ed. Sow in drills twelve to eighteen inches aparr, cover the seed 
about one inch deep. Thin them out when about a month old to 
four or six inches apart. In this latitude beets are sown from 
January till the end of April, and from the middle of July till 
the middle of November j in fact, some market gardeners sow 
some every month in the year. In the summer and fall it is well 
to soak the seeds over night, and loll in plaster before sowing. 

Exti'a Early or BassanOj is the earliest v^inety, but not 
poi3ular on account of its color, which is almost wnite when 
boiled. Earliness is not of so much value here, where iheie are 
beets sown and brought to the market the whole yea-' lound. In 
the Xorth it is diff-rent, where the first ciop of beets in the mar- 
ket in spring will bring a better i^iic;^ than the varieties which 
mature later. 





Simon's Early Red Turnip Beet. 



Early Blood Tarnip Beet 



For the Southern States. 



27 



Simon's Early Red Turnip. This is earlier than the 
Blood Taruip, smooth skin and of liu:ht red color, plaiite-l a good 
denl by the niarket-gardeuers about New Orleans. 

Early Blood Turnip. The most popular variety f »r mar- 
ket pu! poses as well as family use. It is of a dark red color, 
and very tender. 

Long* Blood, is not quite so tender as the foreg^oing variety ; 
it is not planted at all for the market, and very little, for family 
use. In the North it is (thiefly planted for winter use; here we 
have Turnip Beets the whole winter from the garden ; therefore 
it has not the same value. 

Half Long Blood. A very dark red variety of a half 
long shape ; a good variety for family use. 





Silver Beet or Swiss Chard. 



White French Sngar Beet . 

Egyptian Red Turnip. This is 
a new variety sent out by Benary 
some years ago. It is very early, 
tender, deep red und of Turnip shape. 
"; Leaves of this variety are smaller 
than on others. The seeds are also 
much smaller. I recommend it and 
consider it an acquisition. 

Long Red Mangel Wurzel. 
This is raised for stock; it grows to a 
large size. Heie in the South where 
stock is not stabled during the winter, 



28 Eichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual, 

the raising of root crops is much neglected. Being very profita- 
ble for their food it ought to be more cultivated. 

White Frencli Sugar, is used the same as the foregoing j 
not much planted. 

Silver Beet or Swiss Chard. This varit^ty is cultivated 
for its large, succulent leaves, which are uset^ for the same pur- 
poses as Spinach- It is very popular in tbe Xctt Orleans market. 

BORECOLE OR CURLED KALE, 

Choua^rt (Fr.), Gruexer Kohl (Ger.), Breton (Sp.) 

DTvarf German Greens. 

A vegetable highly esteemed in Northern part of Europe, 
but very Jittle caltivated in this country. It requires frost to 
make it good for the table. Treated the same as Cabbage. 

BROCCOLL 

Chou Brocoli (Fr.), Brocoli Spargel-Kohl (Ger. ), Broculi (Sp.) 

Purple Cape. 

Eesembles the Cauliflower, but not forming such compact 
heads, and not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. We 
raise such fine Cauliflower here that very litth- Broccoli is raised. 

The Purph^ Cape is the most desirable variety: cultivated 
the same as Half E^rly Cauliflower ; farther North than New Or- 
leans, where Cauliflower d<"es not succeed, the Broccoli may be 
substitated, being more hardy. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS- 

Chou de Bruxelles (Fr.), Rosen or Sprossen Kohl (Ger. ) 
Breton de Bruselas (Sp.) 








Brussels Sprouts . 



For the iSouthern States, 29 

A vegetable cultivated the same as the cabbage, but very 
little known here. Tlie small h- ads which appear aloojj the up- 
per part of the stalk between the leaves, make a fine dish when 
w^ell prepared. * 

CABBAGE. 

Chou Pomme (Fr.), Kopfkohl (Ger.). Repollo (Sp.) 



Early York. 
Early Largk York. 
Early Sugar Loaf. 
Early 1-,arge Oxiieart. 
Early Winningstadt. 
Jersey Wakefield. 
Early Flat Dutch. 
Large Flat Brunswick . 



Fotler's Lmproved Brunswick. 
Large Late Drumhead. 
Frotscher's Sup'r Late Flat Dutch 
Red Du.ch (for Pickling). 
Green Globe 8avoy. 
Early Dwarf Savoy. 
Drumhead Savoy. 
St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 



Culture, 

Cabbage requires a strong, good soil, and should be heavily 
manured. To raise large Cabbage without good soil and without 
working the plants well, is an impossibility. Cabbage is sown 
here almost in every month of the year, but the seed for a main 
crop should be sown from July to September. Some sow earlier, 
but July is time enough. For a succession, seed can be sown till 
November. Earl}^ varieties are sown during winter and early 
S{)ring. Cabbage is a very important crop and one of the best 
paying for the market-gardener. It requires more work and at- 
tention than most people are willing to give, to raise cabbage 
plants during the months of July and August. I have found, by 
careful obseivation, that plants raised in August are the surest 
to head here. The most successful gardeners in raising cabbage 
plants, sow the sneds thinly in seed-beds, and water several times 
during the day j in fact the seed bed never is allowed to get dry 
from tlie sowiu^- of the seed till large enough to transplant. 
There is no dinger in doing this of scalding the plants, as many 
would suppose; but just the reverse; the plants thrive well, and 
so treated will be less liable to be attacked by the cabbage-fly, as 
they are too often disturbed during the day. 

Early York. This is an early variety, but very little grown 
here, except for family use. As we have cabbage heading up 
almost the whole year, it has not the same value as in IsTorthern 
climates, where the first cabbage in spring brings a good price. 

Larg'e York. About two to three weeks later than the 
above, forming hard heads; not grown for the market. Eecom- 
meuded for family use. 

Early Sugar Loaf. Another pointed variety, with spoon 
shaped leaves ; sown in early spring for an early summer Cab- 
bage. 

Early Large Oxheart. An excellent variety, which is 
later than the Large York, and well adapted for sowing in fall or 
early spring. 

Early Winningstadt, This is a A^ery fine solid-heading 
variety; pointed and of good size, of the same season as the Ox- 
heart. It is very good for family use. It does not suit the mar- 
ket, as no pointed cabbage can be sold to any advantage in the 
New Orleans Market. 



I— 



30 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 





Early York Cabbage. 




Early Large Oxheart. 




Large Flat Brunswick. 



Large York Cabbage. 




Early Flat Dutch. 




Frotscher's Superior Large Flat Dutch . 



For the /Southern States. 



31 




Green Globe Savoy. 




Early Dwarf Savo.y 




Drumhead Savoy . St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 

Jersey Wakefield. Very popular in the North, but little 
plauted here. It is of medium size and heads up well. 

Early Flat Dutch. An intermediate variety between the 
early pointed and late varieties. It is not, on an average, as 
heavy as the Oxheart or Winningstadt, but if raised for the mar- 
ket more salable on account of being flat. Very good variety for 
family use. 

Larg-e Flat Brunswick. This is a late German variety, 
introduced by me about fifteen years ago. It is an excellent 
variety, and when well headed up the shape of it is a true type of 
a Premium Flat Dutch Cabbage. It requires very rich ground, 
and should be sown early, as it is a little more susceptible of frost 
than the Superior Flat Dutch. It is well adai)ted for shipping, 
being very hard and does not wilt so quick as others. At Fre- 
nier, along the Jackson Eailroad, this is the kind principally 
planted, and is preferred over all other varieties. The people 
living there plant nothing else except cabbage for the New Or- 
leans market, and have tried nearly all highly recommended vari- 
eties, atid this is their choice. 

Fotler's Improved Brunswick. This is similar to the 
Large Flat Brunswick, but somewhat later and not so regular in 
shape. She seed of this kind being raised North, renders the 
plants harder than the German Brunswick. 

Liarg'e Late Drumhead. Fine large variety: should be 
sown early in the fall for winter, or during December- and January 
for late spring use 5 it will stand more cold weather than the fore- 
going variety. 

Superior Late Flat Dutch. This is the most popular 
variety for winter cabbage, and cultivated by almost every gar- 



32 Uichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 

dener who plants for the ^ew Orleans market. My stock is of 
superior quality, and I venture to say that seventy-five per cent, 
of all cabbage sold in the Xew Orleans market are of seeds which 
have been obtained from my store. During winter and spring 
specimens, which are brought as samjdes to my establishment, 
weighing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds, can be frequently 
seen. In regard to the time of planting see remarks under head 
of Cabbage, in the directions for planting for July. I have tried 
seed of the Flat Dutch from different growers, but have found 
none yet to equal the stock I have been selling for years. 

Red Dutcli. Mostly used for pickling or salads. Yery 
little cultivated. 

Green Globe Savoy. Medium sized heads, not very hard, 
but all the leaves can be used. This and the following varieties 
are of fine flavor, and preferred by many over the other varieties. 

Early Dwarf Savoy. Heads rather small but solid 5 leaves 
very curled and succulent, of a dark green color. Yery fine for 
family garden. 

Druoiliead Savoy. Leaves are wrinkled, but not quite so 
much as the two foregoing kinds. It grows to a good size with 
large roundish heads. 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneiiil. This is a very popular 
French variety for the market as well as family garden. It grows 
to a large size, but requires a good season and good ground to 
make it head well. It should be sown during August and Sep- 
tember for winter use, and in December and January for late 
spring use. Some market-gardeners plant this variety in prefer- 
ence to any other, and some of the finest heads of cabbage offered 
in this market are of this variety. 

CAULIFLOWER. 

Choufleue (Fr.), Blumexkohi. (Ger.), Coi.iflor (So.) 

Extra Early Paris. I Le Normands (short stemmed) . 

Half Early Paris. I Early Italian Giant, 

Large Asiatic. i i.ate Italian Giant. 

Early Erfurt. | Imperial (Nevr). 

This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeeds well 
in the neighborhood of New Orleans. Large quantities are raised 
on the sea coast in the neighborhood of Barataria Bay. The two 
Italian varieties are of excellent quality, growing to a large size, 
and are considered hardier than the German and French varie- 
ties. I have had specimens brought to the store, raised from seed 
obtained from me, weighing sixteen pounds. The ground for 
planting Cauliflower should be very rich. They thrive best in 
rich sandy soil, and require plenty of moisture duriug the forma- 
tion of the head, 'the Italian varieties should be sown from 
April till July ; the latter month and June is the best time to sow 
the Early Giant. During August. September and October "the 
Le Normands. Half Early Paris, Asiatic and Erfurt, can be sown. 
The Half Early Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are 
just as good, and the Asiatic is a littte hardier than the rest. For 



For the Southern States. 



33 



spring crop tlie Italian kinds do not answer, bnt the early French 
and German varieties can be sown at the end of December and 
during January, in a bed protected from frost, and may be trans- 
planted during February and as late as March, into the open 
ground. If we have a favorable season and not too dry, they will 
be very fine ; but if the heat sets in soon the flowers will not 
obtain the same size as those obtained from seeds sown in fall, 
and which head during December and January-. 

Extra Early Paris, the earliest variety, heads small j very 
tender. 

Half Early Paris, The most popular in the New Orleans 
market. Heads of good size, white and compact. 




Large Asiatic Cauliflower. 

Larg-e Asiatic similar to the above, but grows stronger, 
and is hardier. Quite a favorite variety with those who know it. 

Early Erfurt. This variety is of more dwarfish growth 
than the two former. Heads w^hite and of good size. Heads with 
certainty. 




Le Normands short stemmed Cauliflower. 



34 



Richard Frotscher''s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Le Normaiids is a Frencli variety, and largely cultivated 
here. It stands more dry weather than the other varieties, and 
has large and pure white heads. Not so popular as the Half 
Early Paris in this market, but there is no good reason why it 
should not be, as it is an excellent variety in every respect ; stands 
the heat better than any other. 

Large Algiers. A French variety of the same season as 
the Le Normands, but a surer cropper. It is one of the best kinds. 








^ 




Early Italian Giant Cauliflower. 

Early Italian Giant. Very large fine sort, not quite so 
late as the late Italian, and almost as large. The heads are quite 
large, white and compact, and of delicious flavor. Eecommend it 
to all who have not tried it. When sown at the proper season it 
will head with certainty, and will not fail to give satisfaction. 

Late Italian Giant. This is the largest of all the Cauli- 
flowers. It is grown to a considerable extent in the neighborhood 
of JS'ew Orleans, It is very large and compact ; shoiild not be 
sown later than June, as it takes from seven to nine months be- 
fore it heads. * 

Imperial. (Xew.) A. variety from France very similar to 
the Le ^^ormands, perhaps a little earlier. 

Xon Plus Ultra. A new Italian variety four weeks earlier 
than the Early Itaiian Giant. Very highly recommended. 

CARROT. 

Garotte (Fr.), Moehre or Gelbe Ruebe (Ger.). Zaxahoria (Sp^) 



Early Scarlet Horn. 

Half Long Scarlet French, 

Improved Long Orange. 



Long Red, without core. 
St. Valerie. 
Half Long Luc. 



For the Southern States. 



35 



Eequires a sandy loam, well manured, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown in drills ten to twelve inches apart, so tlie plants 
can be worked after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow 
them broadcast, and often the roots are small from being crowded 
too nuich together. 

Early Scarlet Horn. A short stump rooted variety, of 
medium s'izo, very early and of fine flavor. Not cultivated for 
the mai'ket. 

Half Long Frencli Scarlet. This is the most popular 
variety, and extensively grown for the market, as well as for 
family use, It is a little later than the Early Horn, but much 
larger ; bright scarlet in color, and of fine flavor. 

Half tiOiig' Luc, This is a new variety from France. It 
is as early as any previously mentioned, but stump rooted and 
larger. It is very smooth and of a fine color. 

Iniprovecl Long' Orange, This is an old variety, roots 
long and of deep orange color. It is not much cultivated in this 
section, and the flavor is not so fine as that of the two preceding 
kinds Valuable for field culture. 

Long Reel, without core. A new vai iety from France, which 
is of cylindrical shape, A^ery smooth, bright scarlet color, and of 
fine flavor; has no heart or core. It is not quite, so early as the 
Half Long, but mure j)rodncfive. Con^der it a first class variety 
for the table, an<l one that will come into general cultivation when 
better known. . 




Early Scarlet Horn Carrot, Half Lonor Luc Carrot. 



Half Long Frencli 
Scarlet Carrot. 



36 



Bichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 








Carrot, Long Red, without core- 



Carrot, St. Valerie. 



St. Valerie. A uew variety from FraDce, bright red in 
color ; a little larger and longer than the Half Long French, and 
stronger in the leaves. This is one of the finest carrots, and will 
take the place of the Half Long in the course of time. It is 
very smooth. 

CELERY. 

Celeri (Fr.), Sellerie (Ger.), Apio (Sp.) 



Large White Solid. 
Sandrixgham's Dwarf White. 



I TURXIP-ROOTED. 

I Dwarf Large Ribbed. CNew.) 

CUTTIXG. 



For the Southern States. 



37 




Sow in May and June for 
early transplanting, and in 
August and September for a 
later crop. Sow thinly and 
sliade during tlie liot months. 
Transi)laiit wiien the plants 
are six inches high, into 
trenches about four inches 
deep, nine wide, and two and 
a half ff et> apart, made very 
rich by digging in rotten ma- 
nure. Plants should be from 
six to eight inches apart. 
When planted out during the 
hot months, the trenches re- 
quire to be shaded, which is 
generally done by spreading 
cotton cloth over them ; Ian- 
tanais will answer the same 
purpose. Celery requires plen- 
ty of moisture, and watering 
with soapsuds, or liquid ma- 
nure, will benefit the plants a 
great deal. When tall enough 
it should be earthed up to 
blanch to make it fit for the 
table. 

Large Wliite Solid is 
the variety mostly grown. Is 
white, solid and crisp. 



Large White bolid Celery. 




CeJeriac, or Turnip-Rooted Celery. 



38 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanao and Garden Manual 



S aiidringiiaiii Dwarf 

White. This is a new variety 
of excellent quality, somewhat 
taller than the Incomparable 
Dwarf. It has become very 
popular with the market gar- 
deners. 

Celeriac, or Turnip- 
rooted Celery, is very popu- 
lar in some parts of Europe, 
but hardly cultivated here. It 
should be sown in the fall of 
the year, and transplanted six 
inches apart, in rows one foot 
apart. When the roots have 
obtained a good size, they are 
boiled, scraped off, sliced and 
dressed with vinegar, etc., as a 
salad. 

Dwarf Large Ribbed. 

This kind has been brought 
here during the past year from 
France. It is short, but very 
thick-] ibbed, solid and of fine 
flavor 

Dwarf, Large Eibbed (new). 

Celery for Soup. This is sown in the spring of the year, 
broadcast, to be used for seasoning, the same as Parsley. 

CHERVIL. 

Cerfeuil (Fr.), Kerbelkfaut (Ger..) 
An aromatic plant used a good deal for seasoning, especially 
in oyster soup, and is ofen cut between Lettuce when served as 
a salad. In the ISIorth this vegetable is very little known, but in 
this section there is hardly a garden where it is not found. Sow 
broadcast during fall for winter and spring, and in January and 
February for summer use. 

COLLARDS 

A kind of Cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are 
used the same as other Cabbage. Not popular as in former years, 
and very little planted. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache, Doucet (Fr. ). Acker Salat (Ger. ), Valeriana (Sp.) ~ - 
Broad.leaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. 
It is used as a Salad during the winter and early spring months. 
Should be sown broad cast during fall and winter, or in drills 
nine inches apart. 




For the ^Southern States. 



39 



CORN.— Indian. 

Mais (Fr.), Welschkorn (Ger ), Maiz (Sp.) 



Extra Early Dwarf Sugar 
Adam's Extra Early, 
Early Sugar or Sweet. 
Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. 



Golden Dent Gourd Seed. 
hlAHLY Yellow Canada. 
Large White Flint. 
Blunt's Prolific, Field. (New.) 



Plant in hills about three feet ai)art, drop four to five seeds 
and thin out to two or three. Where the ground is strong the 
Adam's Extra Early and Orosbj^'s Sugar can be planted in hills 
two and half feet apart, as these two varieties are more dwarf- 
ish than the other varieties. Plant for a succession from Febru- 
ary till June. 



w 







Extra Early Sngar Corn. Early Sugar or New England Corn. Evergreen Sugar Com. 

Extra Early or Crosby's Dwarf Sugar. This is a 
very early variety and of excellent quality. Ears small but very 
tender. It is not so extensively planted as it deserves to be. 

Adam's Extra Early, the most popular variety with mar- 
ket-gardeners for first planting. It has no fine table qualities, 
but as it grows to a good size, and is matured in about forty days 
from time of planting, it meets with ready sale in the market, 
and for these reasons gardeners prefer it. 

Early Sug-ar or New England. A long eight-rowed 
variety, which succeeds the Extra Early kinds. Desirable va- 
riety. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar, This is the best of all Su- 
gar Corn. It is not an early Corn, but the ears are of large size, 



40 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



and are well filled. It remaiDS green longer than any other va- 
riety, and IS quite productive. The cultivation of this excellent 
cereal, as well as all otht^r Sugar Corn is much neglected, yet 
why peoiDle will plant common field-corn for table use, consider- , 
ing size instead of quality, I cannot understand. 

Grolden Dent Gourd Seed. A field variety which is 
very productive at the iSTorth. It makes ver}^ fine Corn South, 
but has to be planted here several years in succession before it 
attains perfection, as during the first year the ears are not well 
covered by the husk, as it is the case with all Northern varieties. 
When selected and planted here for a few years, it becomes ac- 
climated and makes an excellent Corn with large, fine ears, grain 
deep and cob of medium size. 

Early Yellow Canada. A long, eight-rowed variety. It 
is very early and is planted in both field and garden. 

Large T\Tiite Flint. A very i^opular variety with gar- 
deners and amateurs. It is planted here for table use principally, 
but like the Golden Dent makes an excellent variety for field cul- 
ture after it has been planted here for two or three years. 

Bliint's Prolific Field Corn. (New). This is a very 
excellent variety, either for the field or for the table. It is very 
prolific, producing from four to six ears of corn. They are of t 
medium size, but well filled and heawv'. It is second early. ! 

CRESS. ! 

Cresson (Fr.), Kresse (Ger.), BEERO(Sp.; f 

Used for salad during winter and spring. Sow broad cast or I 
in drills six inches apart. 

Curled or Pepi^er Grass. Not much used in this section. 

Broad-leaved, This variety is extensively cultivated for 
the market. It is sown from early fall to late spring. The leaves < 
resemble Water Cress ; a variety which does not succeed well | 
here. Is considered a very wholesome dish. | 

CUCUMBER. j 

CoxcOMBRE (Fr,)> GrXJRKE (Ger,), Pepixo (Sp.) j 

Improved Early White Splne. Early Cluster. 

Early Frame. Long Greex White Spine. i 

Long Greex Turkey. Gherkix or Burr (for pickling.) | 

Cucumbers need rich soil. Plant in hills from three to four | 

feet apart j the hills should be made rich with well decomposed j 

manure, and eight to ten seeds should be planted in each hill, and ! 

covered about one-half inch deep -, when well up thin out to four | 

plants in the hill. Hoe between the hills tiU the vines meet. I 

When the spring is dry the plants have to be watered, else they I 

do not keep in bearing long. They can be planted from March j 

till July. A great many cucumbers are planted here in February, i 

or even sooner, and are protected by small boxes with a pane of | 

glass on top. These boxes are removed during the day ; and put | 

back in the evening. When days are cloudy and cold, the plants j 
are kept covered. 



For the Southern States. 



41 




Improved Early White Spine. 

This is the most popular variety. It 
is of medium size, 
light greeuj covered 
T 1 T7 1 wr,-^ a 4«o with white spiues, 

Improved Early White Spine. , , i -j. ' 

^ J r ^^^ turns white 

when ripe. The best variety for shipping. Of 

late years it is used by most gardeners for 

forcing as well as out-door culture. It is very 

productive. 

Early Frame, Another early variety, 

but not so popular as the foregoing kind, it is 

deep green in color, but turns yellow very 

quickly; therefore gardeners do not plant it 

much. 

Long' Green Turkey. A long variety, 

attaining a length of from fifteen to eighteen 

inches when well groAvn. Very fine and pro- 
ductive. 

Early Cluster. Early, 
prickly, and bears in clusters. 




Early Frame. 




short and 




Early Cluster. West India Gherkin. 

• Long Green White Spine. This is a variety selected 
from an imported forcing cucumber. It is good for forcing or 
open ground; very productive, keeps its green color, and has 
few vines. A limited supply offered for the first time. 

West India Gherkin. This is an oval variety, small in 
size. It is used for pickling when young and tender. When 
grown to its full size it can be stewed with meat. In fact this is 
the only use made of it about New Orleans. 

EGG-PLANT. 

Aubergine (Ft.); Eiekpflanze (Ger.), Bekengena (Sp.) 

The seed should be sown in hot-beds in the early part of 
January. When a couple of inches high they should be trans- 
planted into another frame, so that the plants may become strong 
and robust. When warm enough, generally during March, the 
plants can be placed in the open ground, about two and a balf 
feet apart. This vegetable is very popular in the South, and 
extensively cultivated. 



42 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanaa and Garden Manual 



Large Purple or New Orleans Market, This is the 
only kiud grown here; it is large, oval in shape, and of a dark 
purple color, and very productive. Southern grown seed of this, 





Large Parple Egg-plaut. 
as of a good many other tropical or sub- tropical vegetables, is 
preferable to l^Torthern seed, as it will germinate more readily, 
and the plant will last longer <luring the hot season. 

ENDIVE. 

Chicorke (Fr.), Enuivkn (Ger.), Enuibia (Sp.) 

A salad plant which is very poj3ular and much culiivated for 
the market, principally for summer use. It can be sown in drills 
a foot apart, and when the plants are well up thinned out till 
about eight inches apart. Or it can be sown broad cast tlsinly 
and transplanteil the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are 
large enough, say about eight inches l«»ng, tie them up for blanch- 
ing, to make them fit for the table. This can only be done in dry 
weather, otherwise th<- leaves are apt to rot. For summer use do 
not sow before the end of March, as, if sown sooner, the plants 
wid run into seed very 
earlj^ Sow for a succes- 
sion during the spring 
and summer months . 
For winter use soav in 
September and October. 

O-reen Curled, is 
the most desirable kind, 
as it bears more heat 
than the following sort, 
and the favorite market 

variety. Green Curled Endive. 

Extra Fine Curled, does not grow quite so large as the- 
foregoing, and is more apt to decay, when there is a wet summer. 
Better adapted for winter. 

Broad-leaved or Escarolle, makes a fine salad when 
well grown and blanched, especially for summer. 




For the tSouthern States. 



43 



KOHL-RABI, OR TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE. 

Chou Navkt (Fr.), Koiil-Hatu (Gev.), Cor. dk Naijo (Sp.) 

This vegetable is very popular with the European population 
of this city, aud largely cultivated here. It is used for soups, or 
prepared in the same nianner as (jMulifiower. For late U\l and 
winter use it should be sown 
from the end of July till the 
middle of October; for spring 
use, during January and Feb- 
ruary. When the young 
plants are one month old 
transplant them in rows one 
foot apart, and about the 
same distance in the rows. 
They also grow finely if sown 
broadcast and thinned out 
when young, so that the plants 
are not too crowded; or they 
may be sown in drllsand cul- 
tivated the same as Ruta 
Bagas. 

Early White Vienna, 
the finest variety of all, and 
the only kind I keep. It is 
early, forms a smooth bulb, 
and has few small leaves. 
The so-called large White or 
Green is not desirable. 




Early White Vienna Kohl-rabi. 



LEEK. 

PoiUEAU (Fr.), Lauch (Ger.), Pukho (Sp.) 

A species of Onion, highly esteemed lor flavoring soups. 
Should be sown broad-cast and transplanted, when about six to 
eight inches high, into rows a foot apart and six inches apart in 
the rows. Should be planted at lea^t four inches deep. They 
require to be well cultivated in order to secure large roots. Sow 
in October for winter and spring use, and in January and Feb- 
ruary for summ r. 

Large London Flag, is the most desirable kind, and that 
most generally grown. 

Large Carentan, This is a new French variety which 
grows to a very large size. 

LETTUCE. 

Laitue (Fr.), Lattich (Ger.], Lechuga (Sp.) 



Early Cabbagp: or White Butter- 
head. 
Improved Eoyal Cabbage. 
Brown Dutch Cabbage. 
Drumhead Cabbage. 



White Paris Go.s«i. 

Large India Cuuled, 

Perpignwx 

Improved Large Passion. 



Lettuce is sown here dnring the whole year by the market- 
gardener. Of coiirse it takes a good deal of labor to produce 



M 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



this vegetable during our hot sumnier months. For directions 
how to sprout the seed during that time, see ''Work for June." 
The ricner and better the ground the larger the head will be. 
'No finer Lettuce are grown anywhere than in New Orleans during 
fall and Spring. The seed should be sown broad cast, and, when 
large enough, i^lanted out in rows a foot apart, and from eight to 
ten inches apart in the rows. Some kinds grow larger than 
others, for instance Butterhead will not require as much space as 
Drumhead or Perpignan. 

Early Cabbage or Wliite But- 
ter. An early variety forming a solid 
head, but not quite so large as some 
others. It is the best kind for family use, 
to sow during fall and early spring, as it 
is very early and of good flavor. 





Improved Roya! Cabbage Lettuce. 



White Paris Coss Lettuce. 

Improved Koyal Cabbag^e. 

variety in this State. Heads light 




Perpignan Lettuce. 

This is the most popular 
green, of large size, and 



about two weeks later than the White Butter. It is very tender 
crisp, can be sown later in the spring than the foregoing kind, 
and does not run into seed so quickly. 

Brown Dutch Cabbage. A very hardy kind, forms a 
solid head, not so popular as many other kinds. 

Drumhead Cabbage. An 

excellent spring variety forming 
large heads, the outer leaves 
curled. 

White Paris Coss. This 
is very popular with the New 
Orleans market-gardeners, as it 
is the favorite with the French 
population. It grows to perfec- 
tion and forms large, fine heads, 
particularly in the spring of the 
Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce. year. 




For the Southern States. 45 

Large India Curled. A variety liiglily esteemed in the 
ISTorth for summer planting, but very little cultivated here. 

Perpig'iian, A fine German variety which forms large 
light green heads and which stands the heat better than the 
Royal. It is much cultivated for the market, as it thrives well 
when sown during the latter end of spring. 

Improved Larg-e Passion. This is a large Cabbage 
Lettuce from California ; it attains a large size, grows slowly, but 
heads very hard. It does better here during late autumn and 
winter than in summer, as it cannot stand the heat. If sown late 
in the fall and transplanted during winter, it grows to very large 
heads, hard and fiim. It is the kind shipped from here in the 
spring. 

MELON'. — Musk or Canteloupe. 



Melon (Fr.), Melone (Ger.), Melon (Sp.^ 

Early White Japan. 
Persian or Cassaba. 
New Orleans Market. 



Netted Nutmeg. 
Netted Citron. 
Pine Apple. 

Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground is not rich 
enough a couple of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed 
into each hill, which ought to be from five to six feet apart ; drop 
ten or twelve seeds, and when the plants have two or three rough 
leaves, thin out to three or four plants. Canteloupes are cultiva- 
ted very extensively in the neighborhood of ISTew Orleans, and 
the qualit}^ is very fine ; far superior to those raised in the North. 
Some gardeners i)lant during February and cover with boxes, 
the same as described for Cucumbers. When Melons are ripen- 
ing too much rain will impair the flavor of the fruit. 

Netted Nutmeg" Melon. Small oval melon, roughly 
netted, early and fine flavor. 

Netted Citron Canteloupe. This variety is larger than 
the foregoing kind; it is more rounded in shax3e, medium size, 
and roughly net red. 

Pine Apple Canteloupe. A medium sized earl}^ variety, 
oval in shape, and of very fine flavor. 

Early White Japan Canteloupe. An early kind, of 
creamish white color, very sweet, and of medium size. 

Persian or Cassaba. A large variety of oval shape, del- 
icate flavor. The rind of this kind is very thin, which is a dis- 
advantage in handling, and prevents it from being planted for 
the market. Very fine for family use. 

New Orleans Market, A large species of the citron kind. 
It is extensively grown for this market; large in size, very roughly 
netted, and of luscious flavor; diiferent altogether from the North- 
ern Netted Citron, which is earlier, but not so fine in flavor, and 
not half the size as the variety grown here. Small varieties of 
melons will improve in size if cultivated here for a number of 
years, and if care is taken that no Cucumbers, Squashes, Gourds 
or Pumpkin are cultivated in the vicinity. If the best and earli- 
est specimens are selected for seed , in three or four years the fruit 
will be larse and fine. 



46 Ricliard Frotschefa Almanac and Garden Manual. 





%W 



Note. — The aboA^e cat represeuls the New Orleans Melon ; it has been taken from a 
common specimen grown by one of my cubtomere, who laises the seed of this variety for me. 



MELON— Water. 

Melon D'EAu(Fr.), Wassermelone (Ger.), Saxdia (Sp.) 

Mountain Sweet Okange Watek. 

Mountain SpROur, Kattlk Sxakk, 

Improved Gipsey. CuBiN Queen. 
Ice-Cream (While seeded,) 

Water Melon wili grow and produce in places where Oante- 
loupe will not do well. The soil for this plant should be light and 
sandy. Plant in hills about eight feet ax)art, eight to tY>^elve seeds 
in a hill; when the plants are well up thin out to three. The 
plants should be hoed ( ften, and the ground between hills kept 
clean till the vines touch . 




Mountain Svreet Water ^.lelon. 



For the Southern States. 



47 




Improved Gipoey Melon. 

Mountain Sweet Water. This is a very x>opular variety, 
is of oblong shape, tlesh bright scarlet and of good flavor. It is 
very productive. 

Mountain Spront Water, This is similar in shape to the 
foregoing variety, but rather later. It is light green with irregu- 
lar stripes of dark green. Flesh bright scarlet. 

Improved Gripsey, This is a lately introduced variety 
which has become the favorite of the mardet-gardeners. It is 
very large, oblong and of a dark green color, striped and mottled 
with light green. Flesh scarlet, and of delicious flavor. This 
is without any exception the best market variety. 

Ice-Cream. (Whites Seeded.) A medium sized variety 
of excellent quality. It is early and very productive. Being 
thin in the rind it is not so well adapted for the market as the 
other kinds; notwithstanding this, it is grown exclusively by 
some for that purpose, on account of its earliness. It has come 
into general cultivation more and more every year, as it is very 
sweet, and sells readily in the market. 

Orange Water, Quite a distinct variety from the others. 
The rind can be peeled ofl:' the same as the skin af an orange. It 
is of medium size, fair quality. Yery little cultivated. 

Rattle Snake. An old Southern variety which has come 
into notice since a few years 5 it is of large size the green not 
quite so dark as the Gipsey, but the stripes larger; fine market 
variety. The past season, when other varieties failed, it stood 
the wet weather well, and sold more readily than others, not hav- 
ing been injured in looks. It stands transportation better than 
any other; has become the standard market varietj^, and taken 
the place of the Mountain Sweet and Mountain Sprout, which 
Avere x)lanted in former years. 



48 



Richard FroUchers Almanac and Garden Manual 



Cuban Queen, A striped variety liighly recommended by 

yortliern seedsmen, said to reach, from fifty to seventy pounds. 
Sweet and of delicate flavor. 

MUSTARD. 

MouTARDE (Fr.), Sexf (Ger.;, Mostaz^. (Sp.) 
TVhite or Yellow Seeded | Largrleaved. 

This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern States, and 
is sown broad-cast during fall, winter and spring. It may be used 
the same as spinach, or boiled with meat as greens. The white 
or Yellow Seeded is very little cultivated and is used chiefly for 
medical purposes, or pickling. The Largeleaved or Curled has 
black seed, a distinct kind from the Northern or European va- 
riety. The seed is raised in Louisiana. It makes very large 
leaves : cultivated more and more every year. 

NASTURTIUM. 

CAPUCEST:(Fr.), Ixdl^-tsche Keesse (Ger.\ Capuchls'a (Sp.) 
Tall. ! Dwahf. 

Xot cultivated here, except for ornament. 



Tall Geowls'i 



OKRA. 

DWAT<F. 



This is a highly esteemed vegetable in the South, and no gar- 
den, whether small or large, is without it. It is used in making 
^•G-umbo,'* a dish the Creoles of Louisiana know how to prej^are 
better than any other people. It is also boiled in salt and water, 
and served with vinegar as a salad, and is considered a very 
wholesome dish. Should not be planted before the ground is 
warm in spring, as the seeds are apt to rot. Sow in drils, which 
ought to be two to three feet apart, and when up, thin out, and 
leave one or two plants every twelve or fifteen inches. 




Tall Growino: Okra. 



For tlie Southern States. 



49 



liOiig; White, This is the most tender of any kind, in shape 
the same as the 'i all Growing, but the jjods are of a very light 
green color. 

Tall Growing. This is the variety most cultivated here. 
The pods are loug, round towards the end, and keep longer tender 
than the square podded kind. 

Dwarf, Cultivated only as being earlier than the former 
kind. The pods are short, thick and ribbed, and not so nice in 
appearance as the Tall Growing variety. 

ONION. 

Oniox (Fr.), ZwiEBEL (Ger.), Cebolla (Sp.) 
Yellow Dutch or Strassbukg. I White, or Silver Skin. 
Large Red Wetherspield. | Creole. 

The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is 
grown to a large extent in Louisiana. Hundreds of barrels are 
shipped in spring from here to the Western and Northern States. 
There is one peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and that 
is they can only be raised from Southern, or so-called Creole seed. 
No seed from North, West, or any part of Europe, will produce a 
merchantable Onion in the South. When the crop of Creole seed 
is a failure, and they are scarce, they will bring a good price, and 
have been sold as high as ten dollars a pound, when at the same 
time Northern seed could be had for one-fourth of that price. 
Northern raised seed can be sown to be used green, but as we 
have Shalots here which grow during the whole autumn and 
winter, and multiply very rapidly, the sowing of seed for green 




'f 



Louisiana Creole Onion. 



50 Eicliard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 

onions is not profitable. Seed should be sown from the middle 
of September to the end of October; if sown sooner too m^ny 
will throw up seed stalks. They are generally sown broad-cast, 
and when the size of a goose quill transplanted into rows one to 
two feet apart, and about five inches in the rows. Onions are 
different, in regard to rotation, from other vegetables; they do 
best if raised on the same ground for a succession of years. The 
past season has been unfavorable to mature Creole Onion seed, and 
I have not been able to fill orders. The price of Onions has been 
good, and it is expected to be good next spring, owning to the dry 
weather Xorth and West, and it is hoped that a good profit will 
be made by those who are in the cultivation of this vegetable. 

YelloTV Diitcli or StrassT3iu'o-, a brownish yellow 
Onion, flat and of good size in the Xorth, but does DOt bulb here. 

Large Red Wethersfield. This is the favorite kind in 
the East.'but does not answer here, except to be used green. 

Wliite, or Silver Skin, A mild variety of the same shape 
as the Strassburg. This variety is more apt to make a small onion 
here than the two foregoing kinds are. 

JLouisiaua, or Creole Onion, This is generally of a 
light red color, darker than the Strassburg, and lighter in color 
than the Wethersfield. The seed I have been selling, of this 
kind, for a number of years, has been raised on Bayou Lafourche, 
and never has failed to make fine large Onions. 

NEW ITALIAN ONIONS. 

Xew Queen, This is a medium sized white variety from 
Italy, very early and flat ; can be sown as late as February, and 
good sized bulbs >;\"ill yet be obtained. It is of mild flavor and 
very fine when boiled and dressed for the table. It can not be 
too highly recommended. 

Giant Rocca. Another Italian variety of Globular shape ; 
brownish skin, and of very mild flavor. It is not quite as early 
as the ^Vhite Queen, but if sown early in spring will attain a 
good size. The new crop of seed of these two varieties can not 
be had here before end of October. I should recommeud to sow 
the seeds thinly in drills, so that they need not to be transplanted. 
I tried another Italian variety, the Neapolitan Marzagole, but did 
not find it as good as the Queen. It is white, but not as early as 
the former. 

Giant Red Bermuda, Globular in shape, of brownish 
color, darker than the Eocca, otherwise similar. I will offer some 
other varieties next year, Eed Tripoli and Pale EedEtna: the 
latter is flat, very early and keeps well. I have made arrange- 
ments to have new crop of seed here in September, the proper 
time to sow Onion, and if the Creole Onion Seed should fail again. 
I recommend to sow any of the above kinds, but particularly the 
''Pale EedEtna." 

These Italian varieties are the first I ever saw bulb here, and 
they will be valuable when the crop of Creole Onion seed should 
fail The seed I offer are imported directly from Italy, and can 
be relied upon as being genuine. Give them a trial. 



For the Southern States. 



51 



SHALOTS. 

ECHALLOTTK (Fr.), SCHALOTTEN (Ger.) 

A small sized Onion which grows in clumps. It is generally 
grown in the South, and used in its green state for soups, stews, 
etc. There are two varieties, the Red and White; the latter va- 
riety is the most popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs are 
divided and set out in rows a foot apart, and four to six inches in 
the rows, They grow and multiply very fast, and can be divided 
during winter and set out again. Late in spring, when the tops 
become dry, they have to be taken up, thoroughly diied, and 
stored in a dry, airy place. 

PARSLEY, 

Persil (Fr.)j Petersillie (Ger.), Perjil (Sp.)' 
Plain Leaved. | Improved Garnishing. 

Double Curled. | 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from Angust to October, 
and during spring, from end of January to end of April. It is 
generally sown broad-cast. 

Plain Leaved. This is the kind raised for the J!^ew Or- 
leans market. 

Double Curled, The leaves of this variety are curled. It 
has the snme flavor as the other kind, but is not so popular. 

Improved Grarnishiii^. This is the best kind to orna- 
ment a dish; has the same flavor as the other kinds, 

PARSNIP, 

PANAiS(Fr.), Pastinake (Ger.), Pastinaca (Sp.) 
HOLLOW CROWN, OR SUGAR. 

Shouhl be sown in deep, mellow soil, deeply spaded, as the 
roots are long, in drills twelve to eighteen inches apartj when 
the plants are three inches high thin out to three inches apart in 
the row. Sow from September to November for winter, and Jan- 
nary to March for spring and summer crops. 

The Hallow Crown, or Sugar, is the kind generally cul- 
tivated; it possesset^ all the good qualities for which other^ va- 
rieties are recommended. 

PEAS, 

Pois (Fr.), Erbse (Ger.), Guisante (Sp. 
EARLIEST. 



Extra Early, 2^ feet. 
Early Washington, 3 feet. 
Early Tom Thumb, 1 foot. 



Laxton's Alpha, 3 feet. 
American Wonder, (New.) 



SECOND CROP. 



Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod, 1^ fyet, 
Champion of England, 5 feet. 
McLean's Advancer, 3 feet. 

GENERAL CROP, 

Dwarf Blue Imperial, 3 feet. 
Royal Dwarf Marhow, 3 feet. 
Black Eyed Marrowfat, 4 feet. 



Mc Lean's Little Gem, li feet . 
Laxton's Prolific Long Pod, 3 feet, 
Eugenie, 3 feat. 



Large White Marrowfat, 4 feet. 
Dwarf Sugar, 2^ feet. 
Tall Sugar, 6 feet. 



52 



Richard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 



Peas are a fine vegetable, and therefore are very generally 
cultivated. It is best to plant in ground manured the previous 
year, else they will make more vines than pens. As a general 
thing the dwarf kinds require richer ground than the tall grow- 
ing varieties. Marrowfat Peas planted iti rich ground will not 
bear well, but they produce finely in sandy, light soil. 

The Extra Early, Tom Thumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not 
produce a large crop without being in rich ground. Peas have 
to be planted in drills two inches deep and from two to three feet 
apart, according to the height they may grow. Tom Thumb can 
be planted one foot apart, whereas White Marrowfat or Champion 
of England require three feet. The Extra Early, Alpha and Tom 
Thumb can be planted during August and September for fall. 
During November and December we plant the Marrowfats ; Jan- 
uary and February, as late as March, all kinds can be planted, 
but for the latter month only the earliest varieties should be used, 
as the late varieties will get mildewed before they bring a crop. 
Peas will bear much better if some brush or rods are stuck in 
the drills to support them, except 
the very dwarf kinds. 

Extra Early. This is the 
earliest Pea cultivated ; very pop- 
ular with the small market gar- 
deners here, who have rich 
grounds. It is very productive 
and good flavored. The stock I 
sell is as good as any sold in the 
country, not surpassed by any, no 
matter whose name is put before 
''Extra Early." 

Early WasMiig ton. Ear- 
ly May or Frame, which are 
all nearly the same thing ; is about 
ten days later than the Extra 
Early. It is very productive and 
keeps longer in bearing than the 
foregbing kind. Pods a little 
smaller. Very popular about New 
Orleans, 

Tom Thumb. Very dwarf 
and quite productive. Can be 
cultivated in rows a foot apart j 
requires no branches or sticks. 

Liaxton's Alpha. This is 
a variety of recent introduction ; 
it is the earliest wrinkled variety 
in cultivation ; of delicious flavor 
and very prolific. This variety 
deserves to be recommended to 
all who like a first class pea. It 
will come into general cultivation 
when better known. 




Fo'i the Southern States. 



53 



American Wonder. (New.) A wrinkled xjea of dwarf 
growth, 10 to 12 inches; it is prolific, early and of fine quality; 
it coines in after the Extra Early. 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod. An early dwarf variety, 
very stout and branching, requires no sticks, but simply the earth 
drawn round the roots. It is very productive and of excellent 
quality. 

Champion of Eng^Iand. A green, wrinkled variety of 
very fine flavor ; not i)rofitable lor the market, but recommended 
for family use. 

McLean's Advancer, This is another green wrinkled 
variety, about two weeks earlier than the foregoing kind. 

McLean's Little Gem. A dwarf, wrinkled variety, of 
recent introduction. It is early, very prolific and of excellent 
flavor. Requires no sticks. 

Laxton's Prolific Long: Pod. A green marrow pea of 
good quality. Pods are long and well filled. It is second early, 
can be recommended for the use of market-gardeners, being very 
prolific. 

Eugenie. A white, wrinkled variety, of fine flavor ; it is 
of the same season as the Advancer. Cannot be too highly re- 
commendedfor family use. 

Dwarf Blue Imperial. A very good bearer if planted 
early; pods are large and well filled. 

Royal Dwarf Marrow. Similar to the large Marrowfat, 
but of dwarf habit. 

Black liiyed Marrowfat. This kind is planted more for 
the market than any other. It is very productive, and when 
young, quite tender. Grows about four feet high. 

Large White Marrowfat. Similar to the last variety, 
except that it grows about two feet taller, and is less productive. 

Dw^arf Sugar. A variety where the whole pod can be 
used, after the string is drawn off from the back of the pod. 
Three feet high. 

Tall Sugar, has the same qualities as the foregoing kind, 
only grows taller and the pods are somewhat larger. Neither of 
these two varieties are very popular here. ♦ 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in them, 
caused by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod is foimiug, 
when it deposits its egg in it. Later the insect perfects itselt and 
comes out of the dry pea, leaving the hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destroyed, and they grow equally 
as well as those without holes. Market-gardeners in this neigh- 
borhood who have been planting the Extja Early Peas for 
years, will not take them without holes, and consider these a 
trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS, 

There are a great many varieties of Cow Peas, different in 
color and growth. They are planted mostly for fertilizing pur- 



54 



Biehard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



poses ; tliat is sown broad-cast, and when a good stand and of 
sufficient height, they are plowed under. The Clay Pea is the 
most popular. There are several varieties, called crowders, which 
do not grow as tall as the others, but produce a great many 
pods, which are used green, the same as snap-beans, and if dried, 
like diied beans. They make a very good dish. The crowders 
are of an oblong shape, almost pointed at one end; they are on 
an average larger than the other Field Peas. Ladj' Peas are 
small, white, with a black eye ; they are generally planted be- 



tween corn, so that ihey can run upon it. 
ered the very best variety for cooking. 



Dry, they are consid- 



PEPPER, 

PiME>rT (rr.), Spaxischer Pfeffer (Ger, ), Pimento (Sp.) 



Bell or Bull Nose. 
Sweet Spanish Monstrous. 



Long Eed Cayenne, 
Eed Cherry. 



Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot-bed. 
Seed should be sown in January, and when large enough trans- 
planted into the ground in rows from one and a half to two feet 
apart, and a foot to a foot and a half in the rows. There are 
more Peppers raised here than in other sections of the country; 
the hot varieties are used for seasoning and making j^epper 
sauce; the mild variety is highly esteemed for salad. Care 
should be taken not to grow different kinds close together, as 
they mix very readily. 

Sweet Spanish, or Mon- 
strous. A very i)opular variety, 
and much cultivnted, and used for 
salad. It is very mild, grows to a 
large size, tapering towards the 
end. 

Bell or Bull Nose, Is a 

large oblong variety which is not 
sweet or mild, as i bought by some. 
Thf-^ seeds are very hot. Used for 
pickling. 

Long Red Cayenne. Is 

very hot and pungent. Cultivated 
here and used for pepper sauce and 
seasoning purposes. 

Bed Clierry, A small, 
roundish variety, very hot and pro- 
ductive. 




Sweet Spanish, or Monstrous . 



For the Southern States. 



55 





Red Cherrv , 



Lonj? Red Cayenne. 



POTATOES. 



PoMME DE Teree (Fi.), Kartoffel (Ger.) 



Extra Early Vermo^jt. 
Snowflake . 
Beauty of Hebron. 
White Elephant. 



Early Rose. 
Jackson White. 
Breese's Peerless. 
Breese's Prolific. 
Russets. 

Potatoes thrive and produce best in a light, dry but rich soil. 
Well decomposed stable manure is the best, but if it cannot be 
had, cotton seed meal, bone dust, or any other fertilizer should be 
used to mak«^ the ground rich enough. If the ground was planted 
the fall previous with Cow Peas which were plowed under, it will 
be in good condition for ])otatoes. Good sized tubers should be 
selected for planting, which can be cut in pieces not too small; 
each piece ought to contain at least three eyes. Plant in drills 
from two to three feet apart, according to the space and how to 
be cultivated afterwards. For field culture two and a half to 
three feet apart j for garden two feet will answer. We plant po- 
tatoes here from end of December to end of March, but the surest 
time is about the first of February. If planted early they should 
be planted deeper than if planted late, aiid billed up as they grow. 
If potatoes are i)lanted shallow and not hilled soon, they will suf- 
fer more, if caught by a late frost, than if planted deep and hilled 
up well. Early pot.'tofs have not the same value here as in the 
North, as the time of planting is so long, and very often the first 
planting get cut down by a frost, and a later planting, which may 
just be peeping through the ground, will escape and produce in 
advance of the first ])lanted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised 
here, if planted in August; if the Autumn is not too dry they will 
bring nice tubers by end of Kovember. They should not be cut 
if planted at this time of the, year, but planted whole. Potatoes 
from those raised iu spring can be used for seed i^urpos'^s. They 



56 Richard Frotschcr^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



should be put in a moist place before planting, so they may j 

sprout. The early varieties are preferable for this time of planting. i 

I have been liandling several thousand b-trrels of potatoes | 

every season for planting, and make seed potatoes a specialty. ! 

The potatoes I sell are Eastern grovri); which, as every one iii^^er- : 

ested ia potato culture knows, are superior a-'d preferable to i 

Western grown. Eleven years ago I introduced the Peerless | 

Potato here. I then only received ten barrels, as the price was j 

high; but seeing the fine qualities of the same, and finding it to i 

suit our climate, I contracted the following year for a considerable | 

lot, and urged my castomers to plant them. ^STo one has been i 
disappointed in the result. It was during the same vear that 
amongst a lot of Jackson Whites sent out here from New York, 

there were one hundred barrels of Peerless Potatoes. Merchants i 

are not very particular in regard to name, and they were sold for ; 

Goodrich, Jackson Whites, or anything else they resembled. | 

They are well known now, and the kind mostly yjlanted. I brought I 

out six years ago the Extra Early Yermont, Brownell'.^ Beauty, | 

and Compton's Surprise. The latter variety I have di-caided; j 

it is not salable on accouut of its purplish color. Five years ago i 

the Snowflake was the sensation. I 

After another year's trial I have discarded the BrowelFs | 

Beauty. It is of very good quality, productive, but not salable j 
in the market on account of color^ which resembles the Eusset, 

one of the most common potatoes received h^re from the West. I 

I have had six other new varieties under trial, but did not find I 

anything to justify the high price asked for them for our section, i 

The Alpha is a fine white early kin<l, but not prodiiCiive. Euby ' 

and other varieties are pinkish, which always is an objection for j 

this market. These fancy prices for new potatoes do not pay | 

here, as we can keep none over for seed, and any person raising i 

for the market would not realize a cent more for a new fanc}' vari- 1 

ety per ba.rrel, than for a barrel of good Peerless or Eaily Pose, i 

Earliuess is no consideration, as we plant from December to end I 

of March. Somebody may plant Early Kose in December and ! 

another in February, and those planted in February come to I 

the market first ; depends entirely upon the season. If late frosts | 

set in, early planted potatoes will be cut down, and those just, com- ' 

ing out of the ground will not be hurt. The Jackson White has I 

given but little satisfaction this and last year, except in cases ! 

where planted very early. The yield was very good, but the | 

quality poor and very knotty. Perh 'ps this was the fault of the i 

season. It is hardly planted any more for the market. Up to ! 

now the Peerless is the standard variety. Among the new kinds j 

I have tried, I find the White Elephant to be a fiue potato. It is j 

a very strong grower, tubers oblong, very productive, good j 

quality and fiavor. It is late and will come in at the end of the ! 

season if planted with the earlier varieties. So far the price has j 

been too high, buc expect this year to have some to s; 11. " j 

Early Rose. This is, without any doubt, the best pot to 
for the table. It is oval, very shallow-eyed, pink-skinned, very 



-For the Southern States. 



57 



<1ry aiul mealy when boiled. It has not become as popnlar as it 
{1(^ serves ns a market variety, as pink or red potatoes do not sell 
Ro well here as the white kinds. This variety should not be 
planted too soon, from the fact that they make small stalks, and 
if cut down by frosr, they suffer more than otiier varieties. No 
bettrr potato for family use. Every one who pL^nts ought to 
l^lant some of this variety, bnfc they want rich, light soil to grow 
to perf. ctiou. 

Jackson White, This is a very popular kind here in New 
Orleans, aud before the Peerless was introduced it was the lead- 
ing potato. It is not quite so early as the Peerless. It is white, 
has a great many eyes, and is of very good quality. When grown 
here it gets smoother than when produced in the East. It keeps 
well, and during wet seasons rots less than any other variety. Al- 
most out of cultivation. 

Breese's Peerless. Only eight years since this variety was 
introduced, yet at present it is the leading variety for market as 
well as for fanuly use. Skin dull white, sometimes slightly rus- 




^'^^. 






osf^ 



gm^ 



setted; eyes few ;ind shallow, round, occasionally oblong; grows 
to a large size, very productive and earlier than the Jackson 
White. As white potatoes are more salable than pinkish kinds, 
and as this variety is handsome in appearance, and of good qual- 
ity, it has become the general favorite in this section. 

Breese's Prolific, This is another new sort. The vines 
are short, tubers from medium to large, very regular and very 
smooth. Skin dull white, slightly russetted; eyes shallow and 
pinkish ; i]csh white, verj'^ mealy and of fine quality ; not quite 
so productive here as the foregoing kind. 

Russets. This kind is still planted by some. It is round, 
redish and slightly russetted. Eyes deep and many. Very pro- 
ductive, but i;ot so fine a qaalitj^ as some others. If the season 
is dry it will do well, but in a wet season, this variety will rot 
quicker than any other. 



58 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Mamml 



Extra Early Ver- 
mont. Very similar 
to the Early Kose, but 
of a stronger growth ; 
a little earlier, and the 
tubers are more uni- 
form and larger. It is 
an excellent table va- 
riety. 

Snowflake. This 
is a very early variety. 
Tubers good medium 
size ; elongated, very 
uniform and quite pro- 
ductive. Eyes flat on 
the body of the tuber, 
but compre>sed on the 
seed end. Skin white, 
flesh very fine grained, 
and when boiled snow- 
white. 

Beauty of He- 
bron. I have tried 
this variety very thor- 
oughly, and have 
found it all that it has 
been represented. It 
is earlier than the Ear- 
ly Kose, which resem- 
bles it very much, be- 
ing a little lighter ar-d 
more russetted in col- 
or. It is very produc- 
tive and of excellent 
table quality, more 
mealy than the Early 
Eose. 




% 



Extra Early Vermont. 



White Elephant. This variety has given entire satis- 
faction the past season, the tubers are large and of excellent 
quality, planted alongside of the Peerless it produced fully one- 
third more than that variety. Esjiect to have a supply this year. 

THE SWEET POTATO, 

Convolvulus batatas. 

The Sweet Potato is next to corn the most important food 
crop in the South. They are a wholesome nnd nutritious diet, 
good for man and beast. Though cultivated to a limited extent 
on the sandy lands of New Jersey and some of the middle States, 
it thrives best on the light rich lands of the South, wiiich bring 
their red and golden fruits to greatest p-rfection under the benign 
rays of a southern sun. It is a plant of a warm climate, a child 



For the Southern States. 



59 



of tlie sun, much more nutritious than tlie Irisli Potato on account 
of the great amount of saccharine matter it contains, and no south- 
ern table shoukl be found without it from the first day of August 
till the last day of May. Some plant early in spring the potato 
itseif in the i)repared ridges, and cut the vine from the potato 
when large ejiough, and plant them out; others start the potatoes 
in a bed prepared expressly for that purpose, and slip oft' the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these out. The latter method 
will produce the earliest potatoes, others who set out the vines, 
say that they make tbe largest tubers. In preparing the land the 
soil should be thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid off about 
five feet apart, well drawn up and rather flat on top. If every- 
thing is ready and time for planting has arrived do not wait for 
a rain, make a paste of clay and cow manure, in this dip tbe roots 
of the slips and press the earth firmly around them. Old slips are 
more tenacious of life than young ones, and will under these cir- 
cumstances answer best. Watering afterwards, if dry weather 
continues, of course, will be beneficial. Otherwise plant your 
vines or slips ju^t before or after a rain. Two feet apart in the 
row is considered a good distance. The ridges should never be 
disturbed by a plow from the time they are made until the pota- 
toes are ready to be dug. 

Scrape off the grass and young weeds with the hoe and pull 
up the large ones by hand. Grab grass is peculiarly inimical to 
the sweet potato and should be kept carefully out of the patch. 
The vines should never be allowed to take root between the rows. 
Sweet potatoes should be dug before a heavy frost occurs; a very 
light one will do no harm. The earth should be dry enough to 
keep it from sticking to the potatoes. The old fiishioned [)otato 
bank is the best arrangement for keeping them, the main points 
being a dry place and ventilation. Varieties generally cultivated 
in tbe South. 

The Yam. Taking into consideration quality and produc- 
tiveness the Yam stands at the head of the list. Frequently 
when baked, the saccharine matter in the shape of candy will be 
seen hanjiing to tbem in strings. Skin and flesh yellow, and 
very sweet. Without a doubt, the best potato for family use. 

Southern Queen. Very similar to tbe former, but 
smoother, the tubers having no veins or very few. 

Shang-hai or California Yam. This is the earliest 
variety we have, frequently, under favorable circumstances, giv- 
ing good sized tubers two months after planting the vine. Very 
l)roductive, haAnng given 300 bushels per acre when planted 
early and on rich land. Is almost the only kind cultivated for 
the New Orleans market. Skin dull white or yellow, flesh white, 
dry and mealy, in large specimens frequently stringy. 

There are some other varieties of Sweet Potatoes highly 
prized in the West, but are not appreciated here. The Eed and 
Yellow jSTansemond are of fine quality and productive, but will 
not sell so well as the California Yam when taken to market. 
For home consumption they are tine, and deserve to be cultivated. 



60 BwMrd Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual. 

PUMPKIN. 

PoTiROX (Fr.), KuERBiss (Ger.), Calabaza (Sp.)- 

Kentucky Field. | Cashaw Crook Neck. 

Large Cheese. | 

Are generally grown in the field, vdth the exception of the 
Cashaw. which is planted in the garden ; but great care must be 
taken not to have them close to Squashes or Melons, as they will 
mix and spoil the quality of the same. Plant in hills from eight 
to twelve feet apart. 

Kentucky Field. Large round, soft shell, salmon color, 
very productive ; best for stock. 

I^arg'e Cheese. This is of a bright orange, sometimes 
salmon color, fine grained and used for the table or for stock 
feeding. 

Casha^v (Crook IVeck). This is very extensively culti- 
vated in the South for table use. There are two kinds, one all 
yellow aad the other green striped with light yellow color. The 
latter is the preferable kind; the flesh is fine grained, yellow 
and very sweet. - It keeps well. This variety takes the place 
here of the Winter Squashes, which are very little cultivated. 

RADISH. 

Radies, Rave (Fr.), Radies, Rettig (Ger..), Rabano (Sp.) 

Early Long Scarlet. I White Summer Turnip. 
Early Scarlet Tukxip. Scarlet Half Long French, 

Yellow Summer Turnip. Black ::jpanish (Wmter.) 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. | Chinese Rose i^Wii^ter.) 

This is a very popular vegetable, and grown to a large ex- 
tent. The ground for radishes should be rich and mellow. The 
early small varieties can be sown broad-cast among other crops, 
such as beets, peas, spinach, or where lettuce has been trans- 
planted. Early varieties are sown in this section the whole 
year, but durmg summer they require frequent watering to 
make them grow quickly. The Yellow and White Summer Tur- 
nij) are best for planting during the summer months. The Half 
Long Scarlet French is the only red kind raised for the Xew Or- 
leans market, and all the other cities in the United States taken 
together do not use as many of that one Vririety as New Orleans 
does. I have Sold nearly two thousand pounds ot the seed per 
annum for the last twelve years. 

Early Loiig Scarlet. This is a very desirable variety, it 
is of a bright scarlet color, short top, and very brittle. - ^ 

Early Scarlet Turnip. A small, round variety, the fa- 
vori! e kind for family use. It is very early, crisp and mild when 
young. 



For the Southern States. 



61 





Early Long Scarlet. 






'^sj^^^V' ^'^■X^ 



Scarlet Half Long French. Early Scarlet Turnip. 

Yellow Summer Turnip. This stands the heat better 
than the foregoing kinds. It is of an obloug shape, j^ellow, ras- 
setted on the top. It should be sown very thinly. Best adapted 
for summer and fall sowing. 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. This is similar to the 
Half Long French, but shorter, and not quite so bright in color. 
It is early and of good quality. Top short. 



62 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



White Summer Turnip. This is a summer and fall va- 
riety. ObloDg ill shape, i?kin white, stands the heat^well, but is 
not much used. 

Scarlet Half Long French. This is the most popular 
Radish for the maiket. It is of a bright scarlet color, and when 
well grown from two to three iiiches long, very brirtle and teiiuer. 

Black Spanish. (Winter.) This is sown during fall and 
early winter. It is oval in shape, very i-olid nnd stands consider- 
able cold weather without iieing hurt. It can be sowu broad-cast 
between Turnips, or planted in rows a foot apart, and thinned out 
from three to foiii inches in the rows. 

Chinese Rose. (Winter). This is of a half long shape, 
bright; rose color. It is j^s hardy as the last described kind, bnt 
not so popular. 

ROQUETTE. 

ROQUETTE (Fr.) 

Sown from September to March. It is used as a s dad, re- 
sembling the Cress in taste. 

SALSIFY, OR Oyster Plant. 

Salsifis (Fr.), Haferwuezel (Ger.), Ostra Vegetal (Sp.) 

A vegetable which ought to be more 
cultivated than it is. It is prepared in dif- 
ferent ways. It partakes of the flavor of 
oysters. It should be sown in the fail of 
the year; not later than Ii^ovember. The 
ground ought to be manured the spring 
previous, and deeply spaded up, and well 
pulverized. Sow in drills about ten inches 
apart, and thin out to three to four inches 
in the rows. 

SPINACH. 

Epinard (Fr,), Spinat (Ger.), Espinago (Sp.) 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy. 
Broad Leaved Flaxders. 

A great deal of this is raised for the 
New Orleans market. It is very popular. 
Sown f i om September to end of March. If 
the fall is dry and hv)t, it is useless to sow 
it, as the seeds require moisture and cool 
nights to make them come up. The richer 
the ground the larger the leaves. 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy. The 

leaves of this variety are laige. thi<'k and 
a little curled. Yery good for family use. 

Salsify or Oyster Pl-ant.. 

Broad Leaved Flanders. This is the st-iudard vari« ty, 
both for market and family use. Leaves large, broad and very 
succulent. 




For the Southern States. 



63 



SORREL. 

OSEILLK (Fr.), SaUERAMPFER (Ger.), ACEDERA (Sp.) 

Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year; and 
thinned out to three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used 
for various purposes in the kitchen. It is used the same as Spin- 
ach; also, in soups and as a wsalad. 

SQUASH. 

CouRGE (Fr.), KuERBiss (Ger.). Calabaza Tontanera fSi).) 



Early Bush, or Patty Pan. 
Long Gheen, or Summer Crook- 
neck. 



London Vegetable Marrow. 
Thk Hubbard. 
Boston Marrow. 



Sow during Mnrch in hills from three to four feet apart, six 
to eight seeds. When well up, thin them out to three of the 
strongest i>lants. For a succession they can be planted as late 
as June. Some who protect by boxes plant as soon as the first 
of February, but it is best to wait till the ground gets warm. 
When it is time to plant Corn, it is time to plant Squash. 




Early Bash or Patty Pan. LoHg Green or Sammer Crook-'N'eek. The Hubbard. 

Early Bush, or Patty Pan. Is the earliest and the only 
popular kind here. All other verities are very lir tie cultivated, 
as the Cashaw Pumpkin, the striped variety, takes their place. 
It is of dwarfish habit, groAvs bushy aud does not take much room. 

Long Green, or Summer Crook-Neck. This is a 
very strong grower, and continues in bearing longer than the first 
named kind. It is of good quality, but not so popular. 

London Veg"etable Marrow. A Sutopean variety, 
very little cultivated here. It grows to a good size and is A^ery 
dry. Color, whitish with a yellow tinge. 

The Hubbard. This is a Winter Squash, very highly es- 
teemed in the Fast, but hardly cultivated here. 

Boston Marrow. Cultivated to a large extent North and 
East for winter use, where it is used for custards, etc. It keeps 
for a long cime and is of excellent quality, but nor esteemed here, 
as most peo5 le consider the Southern grown Cashaw Puaipkin 
superior to any Winter Squash. 



64 



Richard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 



TOMATO. 

ToMATE fFr.), LiEBESAPFEL (Gcr ), Tjmate Sp.) 

Extra Early Dwarf Red. Large Yellow. 

Early Large Smooth Eed. Acme. (New.) 

Tildex. Paragon. New. 
Trophy, (Selected. 

Seed should be sown in January^ in hot beds, or in boxes, 
which must be placed in a sheltered spot, or near windows. In 
March they can be sown in the oj^en ground. Tomatoes s.\i^ gen- 
erally sown too thick, and b^^come too crowdpd when two to three 
inches high, which mak<^s the plants too thin and spindly. If 
they are transplanted when two to three inches high, about three 
inches apart each way, they will become short and sturdy, and 
will not suffer when planted out into the open ground. Plant 
them from three to four feet apart. Some varieties can be plant- 
ed closer; for instance, for the Extra Ear-y, which is of vt^ry 







Selecrecl Trophy. 



For tlie Southern States. 



65 










Extra Ear].v Dvrarf. 



dwarfish habit, two and a 
half feet a])art is enough. 
They should be support- 
ed by stakes. When al- 
lowed to grow up wild, 
the fruit which touches 
the ground will rot. For 
a late or fall crop the 
seed should be sown to- 
wards the latter end of 
Ma}" and during June. 

Extra Early 
Dwarf. This is the 
earliest in cultivation. 
It is dwarfish in habit j 
fruit 'arger than the fol- 
lowing kind, and more 



■'x~' 



I 



^ 



.^ 



^ 




The New Acme. 



66 Eicliard Frotsclier^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



flat; bright scarlet in color and very productive. For an early 
market vaiiety it cannot be surpassed. 

Early Large Sniootli Ked. One of the earliest ; medium 
size; skin light scarlet; smooth and productive. 

Tilclen. This is the standard, variety for family garden as 
well as maiket. It is of a good shape, brilliant scat let, and from 
above medium to large in size. It keeps well and is planted for 
a general crop. 

Selected Trophy. A very large, smooth Tomato, more 
solid and heavy than any other kind. It is not quite as early as 
the Tilden. Has become a favorite variety. 

Large Yellow. This is similar in shape to the',Large Eed^ 
but more solid, ^^ot very popular. 

Aeine. This is a new variety and the prettiest and most 
solid Tomato ever introduced. It is of medium size, round and 
very smooth, a strong grower and a good and long bearer. They 
are the perfection of Tomatoes for family use, but will not aDswer 
for shipping purposes; the skin is too tender and cracks when 
fully ripe. Of all the varieties introduced none yet has surpassed 
this kind, when all qualities are brought into consideration. It 
does well about here where the ground is heavj'. 

Paragon. This variety has lately come into notice. It is 
very solid, of a bright reddish crimson color, comes in about the 
same time as the Tilden, but is heavier in foliage, and protects 

j its fruit. It is productive and keeps long in bearing. Well 

i adapted for shipping. 



TURNIP. 

Navet (Fr.), RuEBE (Ger.); Nabo Comux (Sp.) 



Eably Red or Purple Top, ] Golden Ball. 

(strap-leaved). I Amber Globe. 

Early White Flat Dutch, 

(strap-leaved). 
LA.RGE White Globe. 
PoMERiAX Globe. 
White Sprlsg. 
Yellow Abi;rdeex. 



Early Purple Top Munich. 
Purple Top Euta Baga. 
Impro^-ed Euta Baga. 
Extra Eakly White French, or 
White Egg Turnip (new). 



Turnips do best in new ground. When the soil has been 
worked long, it should receive a top dressing of land-plaster or 
ashes. If stable manure is used the ground should be manured 
the spring previous to sowing, so it may be well incorporated 
with the soil. When fresh manure is used the turnii)s are apt to 
become spt^ckled. Sow from end of July tiU October for fall and 
winter, aud in January, February and March for spring and sum- 



For the Southern States. 



67 





Improved Purple Top Ruta Baga. Early Red or Purple Top, (strap-leaved) 

mer nse. They are generally sown broad-cast, but the Ruta Baga 
should be sowu in drills, or rather ridge?^, and should not be sown 
later th;ni the end of August. The Grohlen B^ll and Aberdeen 
not later than the end of September. The White Flat Dutch, 
Early Spring and Pomerian Globe are best for spring, but also 
good for autumn. 




Early White Flat Dutch, (strap-leaved.) 

Early Red, or Purple Top. (Strap-Leaved.) "This is 
one of the most popular kinds. It is flat, with a small tap-root, 
and a bright purple top. The leaves are na' row and grow erect 
from the bulb. The flesh is flue graiued and rich. 



68 



EicMrd FrotscJwr's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Early l^Tiite Flat Dutch. (Strap-Leated.) This is 
similyr to the above in shape, but coiisid -ivd about a Tve^k ear- 
lier. It is very -opular. 

Piuiile Top Globe, A variety of recent introduction, 
same sh?.i.e as the Pomerian Globc^, bui; Tvith purple top. Fine 
variety for rhe table or for stock. It is not quite so early as the 
Early Ked or Purple Top. 

Large Wliite G-lobe. A very large variety, mostly grown 
for sti.ck. It can be used for the table -^hen young. Flesh 
coarse but street; tops very large. 

Pomerian C-flobe. This is selected from the above. It is 
SDiouther and fiancisonier io shape: good to i)laDt early in spring. 
When pulled before it is too large it is a very saleable turnip in 
the market. 

White Spring:. This is similar to the White Flat Dutch; 
not qnite so large but rounder in shape. The tops are larger, it 
is early, a good qaality, and best adapted for spring planting. 

Yellow Aberdeen. This is a variety very lirtle culti- 
vated here. It is shaped like the Euta Baga, color yeUoff- with 
purple toi). Good for table or feeding stock. 

Robert s on's 
Golden Ball, is 

the i est of the yel- 
low TurniiiS for ta- 
ble use= It U very 
smooth, oval in 
^hape, and of a beau- 
tiful orange color. 
Leaves are small. 
Should be sown iu 
the fall of the year, 
and always iu ddlls! 
so that the plants 
can be thinned out 
and worked. This 

kind ought to be 

^^^ g M more cultivated. 

_ Amber Globe. 
p ihis is very similar 
ro the above kind. 

Early Purple 
Top iViuntcli. A 
new v.aiety from 
Germany; llat, with 
Eed or Purple Top ; 
same as the Ameri- 
can variety, but iif- 
teen days e^rlier to 
mature It is very 
hardy, tender and of 
fine flavor. Eecom- 
m ended highly. 




Pomerian Globe. 



Fo) the Southern States. 



C9 




Extra Early White French, 



Puri>le Top Ruta Baj2:a 
or Swede. This is grown 
for feeding stock, and also for 
taWle use. It is oblong in 
shape, V el low tlesh, very sol'd. 
Should always be sown in rows 
or ridges. 

Improved Purple Top 
Iluta Ba<.»a. Similar to the 
above; biilb smoother, wiih 
but tew tibious roots. 

Extra Early White 
French, or White Ej^g 
Turnip. This is a lately in- _ _ _ 
troiluceii viiriety; is said to be j^ZjS^^^^ 
very early, lender and crisp. 
The shape of it is oblong, le- pn,- 
senibling an egg. Havin 
trietl it, I found it as rep re 
sen led, quickly growing, ten- 
der and sweet. It never will 
become a favorite market va- 
riety, as only liat kinds sell 
well in this market. It has to 
be pulled up soon, as it be- 
come s pithj' shortly after at- 
taining mtituiity. 

SWEET AND MEDICINAL HERBS 

Some of these possess culinary as wA\ as medicinal proper- 
ties. Should be found in every garden. Groutid where they are 
to be sown sliouM bn av> 11 ])repared and i)ulverize!). Si)rae of 
ihem have very fine s.^ ed, and it is only hec<^ssary, after the .-eed 
is sown, to press the gr.mnd with, the back of the spade; if cov- 
ered too -deep they cann-^t come up. Early spring is the best 
time to sow them — some, such as Sage, Rosemary, Lavender and 
Basil, are best sown in a frame and afterwards tiansplanted 
into the garden. 

Anise, Pimpinelle Anisum. 

Baljn, Melisse Officinalis. 

Easily 1-1 rge and small leaved, Ocymnm Basilicum. 

Bene, Sesamum Orientale. 

Bor.ige, Bora go Officinalis. 

Caraway, Carum Carni. 

Dill, Anethum Graveolens. 

Fennel, sweet, Anethum Foeniculum. 

L 1 vender, Lavendula Vera. 

Majoram, sweet, Origanum May or am. 

Pot Marigold, Calendula. Officinalis. 

Rosemary, Rosemary Officinalis. 

Rue, Rata Graveoie7is. 

Sage, iSalvia Officinalis. 

Summer Savory, Satureja Hortensis. 
Thyme, Thymas Vulgaris. Wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium, 



70 Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



GRASS AND FIELD SEEDS. 

I have often been asked what kind of Grass Seed is the best 
for this latitude, but so far I have never been able to answer 
these questions sntisfaetorily. For hay I do not think theie is 
anything better than the Millet. For permanent grass I have al- 
most come to the conclusion that none of the grasses used- for 
this x>urpose North and West will answer. Rye, l^^d Oats and 
Rescue Grass will make winter pasturage in this latitude. Dif- 
ferent kinds of Clover answer very well during spring, but during 
the hot summer months I have never found anything to stand 
and produce except the Bermuda and Orabgrass, wJiich are in- 
digenous to the S< uth. The former does not seed, and has to be 
propagated by roots. In my opinion it is better suied for pastur- 
age than hay, as it is rather short and hard when cured. I have 
had so many applications for Guinea Grass tliat 1 have been in- 
duced to import some from Jamaica, where it is used altogether 
for pasturage'. It seems to grow rank, but so far I am not en- 
able(i to pass an opinion uj^on it ; it looks rather coarse for hay. 
Having tried Guinea Grass I have come to the conclusion that it 
will not answer for here, from the fact that it will freeze out every 
year. It will pr.'duce a large quantity of hay or green fodder, 
but has to be resown every spring, The seeds that are raised 
here are light, and do not germinate freely. To import seed every 
year is rather troublesome. The Johnson Grass advertised by 
some as Guinea Grass is not Guinea Grass, it is much coaisei-, 
and can hardly be destroyed after having taken hold of a piece of 
ground. Some are enthusiastic about Alfalfa or Lu< erne; others, 
whose opinion ought also to be respected, say it will not do here. 
There exists a great dilference of opinion in regard to which grass 
seed is most suitable for the South. 

Red Clover. Should be sown either during fall or early in 
sj)ring. ' Six to eight po!7nds to an acre. 

White Dutch Clover. A grass sown for pasturage at 
the rate of lour to six pounds to t Lie acre. Should be sowu in 
early spring. 

Alsike Clover. This is also called Hybrid Clover. It is 
a native of Sweden, a cold climate, and does not succeed so well 
here as the other kinds, because of burning out in summer. 

Alfalfa or Chili Clover, or French Lucerne. This 
variety does well here, but the ground has to be well prepared, 
and deeply plowed. It will not do in low, wet grouiid. Should 
be sown m January or February; eight to ten pounds per ai-re. 
(See letter of E. M. Hudson at end of tteed Catologue). 

Kentucky Blue Grass. (Extra Cleaned.) Should be 
sown in dry soil. Two bushels per acre. 

Orchard Gl-rass, This is ot»e of the best grasses for pas- 
turing. It grows quickly, much more so than the Blue Grass. 
Can be sown either in fall or spring. Sow orteto one and a half 
bushel per acre. (See extra«t from "Farmers' Book of Grasses.") 

Rescne Grass. A forage plant from Australia. It grows 
during winter. Sow the seed in the fall of the year, but not be- 



For the Southern States. 



71 



fore the weather gets cool, as it will not sprout so long as the 
ground is warm. (See letter of Thomas B. Hopkins.) 

Hungarian Grrass, This is a valuable annual forage plant 
and good lo make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre. It should 
be cut when in bloom. 

German Millet. Of all the Millets this is the best. It 
makes good h ly, and produces heavily. Three pecks sown to the 
acre broadcast secures a good stand. Can be sown from April 
till June, but the former month is the best time. Should be cut 
the same as the foregoing kind. 

Rye. Is sown during the fall months as late as December 
for forage, and for pa turage during winter and spring. 

Barley, Fall. Can be sown fall and winter, but reqtiires 
strong, ^ood soil. Used here for forage during its green state. 

Red or Rust Proof Oats. It is only a few years since 
these oai s have come into general cultivation. They are very val- 
uable and will save a great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of 
this variety has a leddish ca^t, and a peculiar long beard, and is 
very heavy. It is the only kind which will not rust in the South- 
ern climate. They can be sown as early as October, but should 
be pastured down as soon as they commence to joint, till Febru- 
ary. When the groutid is low, or the season wet this cannot well 
bn d(me wif bouc destroying the whole crop. Durit»g January and 
February is the proper rime, if no pasturing can be done. One 
to o e and a half btishel per acre is sufficient. These oats have 
a tendency to stool, and therefore do not require as much per acre 
as common tats. Those who have not already tiled this variety 
should do so. 

Sorghum. Is planted for feeding stock during the spring 
and ear y suujmer. For this purpose it should be sown as early 
in spring as possible in drills about two to three feet apart; three 
to four quaits p-r acre. It makes excellent green fodder. 

Broom Corn. Can be planted the same as corn, but the 
hills c o.ser to<iether in the row. Six quarts wiil plant an acre. 

East India Millet. My Almanac of 1879 gave a full des- 
cription of this forage plant, written by E. M. Hudson, Esq. It 
has pi oven lo be all that has beeu ciaimel for it. Price pjr lb. — . 

Bermuda Grass. Almost everybody living in this section 
of the couiit'y knows this gra>-s; it is planted as a Lawn Gr<»ss, 
and no hing will stand the sun better or wil! make a prettier car- 
pet when kei)t short, than tlds grass. It is also very v.iluai)le as 
a pa-tnre and hay jirass. For the first time I have b^efi able to 
obtain the S'ed of this grass, which heretofore had to be pro- 
pagated hy thi- roots. I offer a limited quantity at $2 OO ])er lb. 
One and a half to tvvo pounds will sow an acre. Should be 
planted in spring, but can be sown later. 

EESCUE GRASS. 

The following letter will give all the information about the 
grass, which can be desired. 



72 Richard Frotsclie^-^s Ahnanac and Garden Manual 

TEE3irLLio>'TiLLE. LonsiAKA, October 10th, 18S1. 
Me. EICHAED FEOTSCHEE, ^^e^v Orleans, La. 

Dear Sir : 

In coaiplying with yonr reqne=-.tto give yon my experience in 
the cultivation of Bescue Grass, I do Eot propose toth^owany 
more light npon the sn' ject. nor to present any new features to 
those v>ho are acquainted wiih this grass, but simply lo state a 
few pilain facts that may be of some value to those ^vho are ac- 
quainted with it. 

Tbis grass was first brought to my notice about twenty years 
sinee as California Oats. I atterwards learned its true name to 
be Bescue Grass, though it is known to a great many farmers in 
this neighbor!! ood by the name of ^' Iver>on Grass.*' and is re- 
gardt-d in this section or the country, by those acquainted v.ithit, 
as a most valuable icinter grass, for it is a growth only of cold 
weather, the st^ed never gtrrminating daring warm weather, no 
matter when planted. 

My method, when wishing to start a new plot of it. is to 
plough the gT'.und once or twice during the summer to get it in a 
thoroughly pulzerized condition before sowing tbe seed in the 
early fa:l: and if the srronnd is not uaturi^Uy rich, put on about 
enough manure to make a good ci-rn cop. (The richer tbe land 
the better tl e pasrure ?.nd tbe faster the grass will grow, -^f s^-il- 
ing is the object for which it is us^d.) Then, about tbe first of 
Sepember I icplough ihe grouiid, sowing the seed immediately 
after, and harrow ''them in"' as you would do sm 11 graiu. This 
puts them in good condition, aiKl early enough in this climate, 
to insure their coming u{> with the firsc cold weather in tbe month, 
of September or Oct' ber. IXothifig more is necessary to be (io'te 
to insure you a good pasture by Christmas. I usua ly sow about 
two busbels of ^e^d to the arpenr, but if soiling is the object for 
wbich it is sown, then tbree or even four bushels are not too mu( h, 
for the thii-ker it stands, if the land is rich, the quicker wil it be 
hi^h enongb f.*r the sickle. 

I have a small iJot of this gXriss in my g.irden, 30x84 ft^et, 
which I use for soiling. Fiom this little plot 1 fed during m11 of 
last winter (and you kisow how severe the winter was) twelve 
head c-f grown sheep with their lambs, in all twen'y bead, and upon 
th's grass, with a few cotton seed and tin nips, they kppt m excel- 
lent c nuition. yielding me in the spring a heavy fleece of wo d. 
After the winter was ove-, the gr.iss upcn this plot went to seed, 
fiom which I gathered 150 lbs. of clean seed, leaving enough on 
the ground to re-seed it. 

'ihis gTass ripens its seed early in May, then dies, giving 
ample t'me to x>lant the giound in any crop that will not require 
p'ongbing after the first or middle of September, when the >eed 
Will jigasn spring u;), giving a good i-asture the following winter 
and spring, ai d I have yet to tind the animal or fowl th.t is not 
fond of this grass, and but lew th-ng^ afford fowls mo-e food 
during winter than this gr iss. But I would advise those planting 
it never to let the foot of a goose touch it, for his foot is like red- 
hot iron to all winter pastures. 



For the Southern States. 



73 



Sliould those wtsliin^ to piant this grass not have g:roun(l 
naUitally ridr, and are not ])re|iare(l with manurt s to mak<' it so, 
then let them sow uny land, even the p(!or< st, and it will .cjive 
them some pas me nnt 1 March. Tln^ii take oft* their stock and 
a low the grass to ripi-n seed, which turn undt r with the straw, 
weeds, etc. As s 'On ms this straw, weeds, etc., rots a little, ])lant 
the ground in field |)ea<, wliicii turn under atraiu in tht^ fall e^rly 
< noiioh for the grass se« d toconie up with tln^ first cool weather, 
and it will astonish any one who hns never tried itto see how much 
their pastures will be imi)roved the following winter. By follow- 
ing thi- plan tor a few years the poorest <>f land canb Muade rich. 
I am treating a goo 1 size ]) isture of this grass in this way at 
present, and know whereof I write. 

With til is grass for winter and Bermuda grass for summer 
pasture, slieep Avill keep lol ing fat the year round, »nd conse- 
quently, give a much heavier cLp of wool in the spring than if 
only fat dnring summer. 

I have Uf^ver known a winter, in this climate so cold but that 
this grass would continue to grow and furnisii pastnre or soiling 
the »ntire winter, and large cotton-fields might be kept covered 
with this glass by once sowing them, hikI in the spring, when 
bedding up for tiie next ciop, leave about two or three furrows 
unbroken, to be broken out after the seed are lipe in May, which 
would fui ni<h seed enough tot the entire land, and the ploughing 
and hat rowing necessa-y to make the cotton crop would suffi- 
ciently scatter the see<l over the land, wnd my word for it, they 
will not germinate until the cotton is 1 lid by in the tali. Tims 
m iiiy a poor oLi cow and horse would be "jRescwe^" from starva- 
tion dining t'.e winter that would otherwise be *' gathered boroe 
to their faihers." 

I Mgtee with yon perfectly that '' The Grass Question "is one 
of vast iini>ortanci^, and especially is it so to the farmers of the 
South, a"d if they would give it more attention, in a few years 
their cotton ciops would be entire profit, and not go North and 
West to buy corn, bacon and mules. 

But for fear >ou may think me too much of an enthusiast, I 
will clos*" my letter by s 'ying that if you find an\ thing in it you 
think of any value to }our many frien 'S of the South, you are at 
liberty to use ii as ;^ ou S' e pioper, and I lemaiu, as ever. 



Your friend, 



THOS. B. HOPKINS. 



The following extracts have been taken, by permission, from 
the author. Dr. D L. Phir<s, from his book just published, 
'• Fa-mer^' Book of Grasses.'' It is the most \ aluable work of she 
kind ever published in the South, and shouM be in the hands of 
every one Avho takes an interest in the cultivation of grasses. 

Copies for sale at publishers' price. Paper covers, 50 cents 
Cloth, 75 cents ; postage paid. 



74 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

ORCHARD GRASS. 

{Bactylis Glomerata.) 

Of all the grasses this is one of the most widely diffiisecl, 
growing in Africa, Asi^, and every country in Europe and all our 
States. It is more highly esteemed and commended than any 
other grass, by a larger number of farmers in most countries— a 
most decided proof of is gre.<t value and wonderful Mdaptations 
to many, soils, climates and trnatmi^nts. Yet, strange to say^ 
though growing in England for manv centnrif^s, it was not appre- 
ciated in that country t:ll carried there from Virginia in 1764. 
But, as in the c^se of timothy, soon after its introduction from 
America, it came into hi^^h favor amo"g farmers, and siill retains 
its h<dd on their estimation as a grazing and hay crop. 

Nor is this strange when iis many advantages and points of 
excellence are consid»-red. It will grow w^ell on any soit contain- 
ing sufficient clay and not holding too much water. If the land 
be too tenacious, drainage will remedy the soil; if worn out, a 
top dressing of stable manure will give it a good send-off, and it 
will furnish several good mowings the first year. It grows well 
between 29° and 48° latitude. It may be mowed from two to 
four times a year, according to the latitude, season and treat- 
ment; yieldi g from one to three tons of excellent hay per acre 
on t)Oor to medium land. In grazing and as ha^^ most animals 
sehct it in preference among mixtures i»i other grass s. In lower 
latitudes it fu«nishes good winter grazing, as well as for Sj)riug, 
Surnm* r and Fall. After grazing or mowing few grasses grow ^o 
rapidly (three or sis inches per week), and are so sooii ready 
again for tooth or blade. It is easily cured and handled. It is 
readily seeded^ and catches with certainty. Its long, deeply 
penetrating, fibrous roots enable it to sustain itself and grow 
vigorously during dr .ughts that dry up other gr^ss s, except tall 
oat grass, which has similar roots and characteristics. It grows 
well in open lands and in forests of large tie^s, the undeibiush 
being all cleared off. I have had it grow luxuriantly even in 
beech woods, where the roots aie supeificial, in the crotches of 
roots and close to the trunks of trees. The hay is of high qual- 
ity, and the young grass contains h latger per cent, of nutritive 
digest. be matter th.tn any other gras-^. It thrives well without 
ai»y renewal on the same ground for thirty-five, nay forty years ; 
hoAv much longer I am not able to say. It is easily extermiuHted 
when the land is desired for other crops. Is there any other 
grass for which so much can be said f 

RED TOP GRASS. 

[Agrostis Vulgaris.) 

This is the best grass of England, the herd grass of the 
Southern Stites; not in honor of any man, but probab'y be- 
cause so well ad pted to the herd. It is c^dhd also Fine Top, 
Burden's and Bordtn's Grass. Varying greatly in characters, 
according to soil, location, climate and culture, some botanists 
have styled it A. Polymorpha. It grows two to three feet high. 



For the Southern States. 75 

atid I have mown it when four feet high. It grows well on hill- 
tops and sides, in ditches, gullies and marshes, but deligiits in 
moist bottom laud. It is not injuied by overflows, tbougb some- 
what prolonged. In ma? shy land it produces a very dense, 
strong network of roots capable of sustaining the weight of men 
and animals walking over it. 

It furnishes cousider able grazing during warm ''spells" in 
winter, aud in spring and summer an abundant supply of nutri- 
tion. It has a tendency, being very hardy, to increase in density 
of gro\vth and extent of surface, and will continue indefinitely, 
though easily subdued by the plow. 

(Jut before maturing seed it makes a good hay and large 
quantity. It seems to grow taller in the Southern States than it 
does further North, and to make more and better hay and grazing. 
It and timothy being adapted to the same soils, and maturing at 
the same time, do well together and produce an excellent hay. 
But the red top will finally root out timothy — if pastured much 
it will do so sooner. 

Sow about two bushels (24 lbs.) per acre, if alone, in Sep- 
tember, October, February or March ; if with timothy for hay, 
from 6 to 10 pounds ; if with other grasses for pasture, 3 to 5 
pounds. It is an excellent pasture grass, and will grow on 
almost any kind of soil. 

KENTUCKY BLUE GRASS. 

{Poa Pratensis ) 

This is called also smooth meadow grass, spear grass, and 
green grass, all three very ai propriate, characteristi<5 names. 
But Blue is a misnomener for this grass, It is not blue, but 
' green as grass * and the greenest of grasses. The P. cornpressa, 
flat-stalked meadow grass, wire grass, blue grass is blue, the 
' true blue' grass from which the genus received its trivial name. 

Kentucky blue grass, known also in the Eastern States as 
June gjass, although esteemed in some parts of America as the 
best of all pasture grasses, seems not to be considered very val- 
uable among English farmers except in mixtui'es. It is certainly 
a very desirable pasture grass however. Its very narrow leaves, 
one, two or more feet long, are in such profusion and cover the 
ground to such depth with their luxuriai;t growth that a mere 
description could give no one an adequate idea of its beauty, 
quantity and value ; that is on rich land. On poor, sandy land, 
it degenerates sadly as to other things iincongenially located 

Perennial, and bearing cold and drought well, it furnishes 
grazing a large part of tbe year. It is specially valuable as a 
winter and spring gass for the South. To secure the best win- 
ter results, it should be allowed a good growth in early fall, so 
that the ends of the leaves being killed by frost afford an ample 
covering for the under pa-ts which continue to grow all winter, 
and aftbrd a good bite whenever required by sheep, cattle, hogs 
and hoises. In pr- longed summer drought it dries completely, 
so that if fired, it would buru off clean. But this occurs in Ken- 



76 Bkhard Frotschefs Almanac and Garden Manual. 

tucky, where indeed it lias seeined, without fire, to disappear ut- 
terly 'i yet when rain camej the bright green spears promptly re- 
carpeted the earth 

Wiih its underground stems and many roots, it sustains the 
heat and drought of the Southern St-tes as well as those of Ken- 
tucky ; where ind^^ed it is subjected to severer trials of tids kind 
than in the more Southern IStates. In fa t, it be^rs the vicissi- 
tudes of oar climate about as well as Bermuda grass, and is 
nearly as nutritious. 

Blue grass giows well on hill tops, slopes, or bot om lands, if 
not too wet and too poor. It may be >o\vn any tini«* from Sep- 
tember tiil April, preferably perhaps m the l-tter half of Febru- 
ary, or early in March. The b st c^stch I ever had was sown the 
20th of Majch, on unbroken land, from vv^hicSs srash, leaves, etc., 
had just been burned. The surface ot the land should ix- cleaned 
«»f trash of ail kinds, smooth, even; and if ricentlv plowed and 
harrowed, it should be rolied also. This ast pjoceeding is for 
com|taciing the surface in order to ]'revenr the s ed fr^m sinking 
too deep in tise ground. Without hanowiiig or bi ii>hirifr in, 
many of them get in too de^p lo come up, even when the sutfas e 
of tite laiid ha;s had the roller over ir. The hi si rain afie; seed- 
ing will i)ot theai in «ieep enough, as the seeds are very miiuit *, 
and the spears of gra^s small as line n- edles, and thereh»re unable 
to get out fiom under heavy cover. These ^j)ears are so small as 
ti» be invisible, except to close examin^itioi!, and in higher lati- 
tudes, this coisdiiion CDntiuues tinough the lirs' year. Thus, 
some who have sown the blue gr-^ss seed, seeing the tirst .year no 
grass, imagine the^^ have been cheated, plant s me other crop, 
and piobablj^ lose what close inspection would have shown to be 
a good catch . I his, however is nor apt to occur in ihe SoutheiU 
tier of States, as the growth here is moie lapd. The sowing 
mt^otioned above, made on the 2(Jth of M^a-ch, came up promptly, 
and in three mossths the grass Wiss fVom six to ten inches high. 
One .year hire gives a finer gtowth and show than two m Ken- 
tucky (ir any osher State so far North. 

Sown alone, 20 fo 26 pounds; that is, 2 bushels, should be 
used. In mixtures, 4 to 6 pounds. 

ENGLISH OE PEKENNIAL EYE GEASS. 

(Lolium Perenne.) 

This is the first grass cultivated in England, over two centu- 
ries ago, and at a still more remote pt'ri<jd in France. It was 
long more wid^dly known and cultivated thai any other grass, 
became adapted to a g>eat vaiiety of soil ' and condi ions, and a 
vast number (seventy or more) vaiieaes produced ; s >me of which 
were greatly improved, while othe s wer-' nfeiior and became 
annuals. Inti0duc< d into the United States i » the fiist quarter 
of th« current century, ir, has never become very popular, 
although shown by the subjoined anjil\sis of Way not to be 
dehcient in nutritive muter. In lUO parts of the drird giass cut 
ia bloom were albuminoids 11.85, f aty m.xtiers 3.17, h at-pro- 



For the Southern States. 77 



ducing principles 42.24, woodv fibre 35.20, ash 7.54. The more 
recent aual^Nsi^ of Wolff and Km-pp, allowing for water, gives 
rather uune nutritive matter tli *fi tui?;. 

It giow« rapidiv and yields heavy crops of seed, makes goo* J 
griizir»g and good hay. But ms with all the Kye grasses, to make 
good ha.v it must he cut icfore passing the blossom stage, as 
after that it <ieteriorat- s laphlly. The roots being shorr, it does 
not bear diouglit we 1 and exhansis th*' soil, dying out in a tVw 
years. In these r snecis it is liable to tiie same objections as 
timothy. Tne s'em one to two feet high, has four to six purplish 
joinis and as m-my durk green leaves. The iiexious sf)ik'.d pan- 
icle bearing the distant s])ikelets, one in eacii bend. 

It sh' u d be>own in August o^ fcSepteraber, at the rate of twenty- 
five or thirty pounds or one bushel .-eed per acre. 

TALL MEADOW OAT GEASS. 

( A rrh cna i herum A ven acewn . ) 

Evergreen grass in Virginiii, and other Southern States, audit 
is th«^ Tall 0.«t (Avena el.jtior) of Linajus. It is closely related 
to the common oat, an s has h bs antful open i)anicle, haning 
sligh'ly to one side. '• Sp ke'ets two fi»iwered and a rudiraent 
of a third, open ; lowest flower st^aninate or sterile, with a long 
bent awn below the mi die of thn back.'' — (Flint.) 

It is wi e\y naturalized and well adapted to a great variety of 
Soils. On sandy, or gr velh soils, it succeeds admirably, grow- 
ing two or three feet high. On rich, dy upland it grows from 
five to seven feet high. It has an abunclmce of perennial, long 
fibrous roots, pei.etratiug de ply in the soil, being therefore less 
affected by di ought or < old, and eiableri to yield a large quantity 
of foliage, wif.ter and summer. These advantages render it one 
of the very be^t grasses for the Soiith, both for grazing (being 
evergr en) und for hay, admitting of be ng cut twice a year. lu 
is |>robabl3^ tlie best winter j^rass th .t can be obtained. 

It will make t^\ic" as much hay as tmothj, and containing a 
greater qua* tity ot albuminoiis, and less of heat prodncing prin- 
cii les, it is better adapted to the use.s rf the Southern farmer, 
while it exliansts the surtace soil less, and may be gr.ized i,«defi- 
nitely, exctepi atter moving. To make good hay it must be cut 
the instant it b < oms, and, after cut, must not be wet by dew or 
rain, which damages it greatly in quality and appearance. 

For green soiling, it may Ite cut four o^' five' times with favor- 
able seasons. In from six to ten days after blooming, the se-cda 
bc'^in to -ripen and tall, the u[)per ones first. It. is therefore a. 
little troublesome to save the s ^ d. As soon as those at the top 
of the panicle ripen sufficiently to begin to drop, the heads should 
be cut off and dried, when th>^ seeds will ^dl thresh out leadily 
and be mistured. After ih- seeds are ripe and taken off' the long 
abundant haves and stems are still g»een, and being mowtd, 
make good hay. 

It my be sown in March or April, and mowed the same ser- 
son; but, for heavier yield, it is better to sow iu September or 



78 Richard Frotscher''s Almanac and Garden Manual 

October. Alono: the more soutlieriy belt, from the 31^ parallel 
t-oiilhward, it may be sown in IsTovember and onward till the 
middle ot December. Whenever sown it is one of the most cer- 
tain grasses to have a gooil catch. Not less than two bushels (14 
pounds) per acre should be sown. Like timothy, on inhospitable 
soils, the root may sometimes become bulbous. The average 
annual nutrition yielded by this grass in the Southern b^lt is 
probably twice as great as in Penusyivania and other Northern 
States. 

JOHNSON GEASS. 

{Sorghum halapense.) 

This has, been called Cuba grass, Guinea grass, Egyptian grass. 
Means grass, Alabama Guinea grass, etc. 

It seems pretty well agreed now, however, to call this Johnson 
grass, and leave the name Guinea grass for the Panicum jumen- 
torum, to which it properly belongs. 

It is true that in Mr. Howard's pamphlet, as well as in many 
periodicals nnd books, and in letters and common usage, this 
grass has been far more gennrally called Guinea grass than the 
true Guinea grass itself*, thu-^ causing vast confusion. It is, there- 
fore, assurealy time to call eacli by its right name. Johnson 
grass is perennial and hus cane-like roots, or more properly un- 
derground stems, from the size of a goose-qnill to that of the lit- 
tle finger. These roots are tender, and hogs are fond of and 
thrive on them in winter. The roots literally fill the ground ne-T 
the surface, and every joint is capable of developing a bud. 
Hence the grass is rea<lily propagated from root cuttings. It is 
also propagated from the seed, but not always so certainly; for 
in some localities many faulty seeds are produced, and in oiher 
places no seed are matured. Before sowing the seed, therefore, 
they should be tested, as should all gra^s seeds indeed, in order 
to know what proportion will germinat-', and thus what quaotity 
per acre to sow. One bushel of a good sample of this seed is suf- 
ficient for one acre of land. 

The leaf, stalk and paniele of this grass resf^mble those of other 
sorghums. It grows on any land where corn will grow; and like 
the latter, the better the land, the heavier the crop. On rich 
land the culms attain a size of over half an inch in diameter and 
a height of seven feet. It should be cut while tender , and then 
all live stock are fond of it; for a few weeks are sufScient to ren- 
der it so coarse and hard that animals refuse it, or eat sparingly. 

A few testimonials are here quoted to give an idea of the pro- 
ductiveness and value of this plant. In a letter published in the 
Kural Carolinian for 1874, Mr. N. B. Moore, who had- for more 
than forty years grown crops, speaks of this grass under the 
name of Guinea grass. 

*'My meadow consists of one hundred acres of alluvial land, 
near Augusta. # * * in winter I emj^loy but four meu, wh() 
are enough to work my packing-press; in summer \vhen harvest- 
ing, double that number. In autumn I usualy scarify both ways 
with sharp, stet^l -toothed harrows, and sow over the stubble a 
peck of red clover per acre, which, with volunteer vetches, comes 



For the Southern States. 79 



off about tbe middle of May. The second yield of clover is uni- 
formly eaten up by grasslioppers. The taj) root remains to fer- 
tilize the then coming Guinea grass, wliich should be cut from 
two to three feet high. * * * On such land as mine, it will 
afford thtee or four cuttings if the season is i)r<»pitious. I use 
an average of five tons of gypsum soon after the first cutting, 
and Hboiit the same quantity of the be^t commercial fertilizers in 
March and April. * * * The grass, which is cut before noon, 
is put up with horse sulky rakes, in cocks, before sundown," 

Mr. Moore's income from this field was from seven thousand to 
ten thousand dollars a year. 

Mr. Goelsel, of Mobile, says: ^^It is undoubtedly the most 
profitable soiling jdant yet intrc:duced, and also ])romises to be 
the pla7it for our Southern haj^ stacks, provided it can be cut 
every three or four weeks." 

Note. — Eecognizing all the above, I would say, that great care 
must be taken not to sow this grass near cultivated lands. If 
done, it should not be allowed to go to seed, as the wind will 
blow them off from the stalks, and when it gets amongst cane or 
other crops, it causes a great deal of trouble. It is almost impos- 
sible to get it out of the land. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louis- 
iana. If applied to localities Korth of here, the time of planting 
will not be quite so early iu spring, and earlier in fall. For 
instance: the directions for elanuary will answer for February in 
the Northern part of this State and Southern part of Mississippi 
or Arkansas. In autumn, directions for September can be fol- 
lowed in August. In those sections, very little can be planted 
in November and December. 

JANUARY. 

Sow Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks, 
the early varieties of Eaddish, and for the last crop, the Black 
Spanish. 

Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. Euta Baga may also be 
sown, for table use later in spring. 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi and early 
Cauliflower -, the latter best sown in a frame to be transplanted 
next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Paisley and Celery for cutting, should be sown 
this month. Sow Eoquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot-bed has not been prepared already, make it at once 
to sow Egg Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

All kinds of Herb seed may be sown during this month. Plant 
Peas for a general crop, towards the end of the month the Extra 
Early varieties may be planted. 



80 Eichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Plant Potatoes, but the Early Kose should not be planted 
before the latter end ot this raoiith. 

Divide and transplant Shalots. Transplant Cabbage plants 
sown in iSl'ovember. Otdous, if not abeudy set out, should lie 
hurried with now, so they may have time to bulb. Those who 
desire to raise O-don sets, should sow the s^ed this month, as 
they may be used for setting oat eiirly iu the fall, and can be sokl 
so<nier than those raised from seed. Creole seed is ihe only kind 
which can be us^d to raise sets from. jSToitb^^rn seed will not 
make sets. This I know f.om experience. Aspaiiigus roots 
should be set out this month. 

B,ed Oats can be sown, I consider these and German Millet: 
the two bt'st forage plan s for Louisiana. 

Cucumbers can be planted in the botbed ; they are mostly 
planted hnre during November and Decembei, but if the hot b>-d 
is properly made, those pla^ ted in this month will bear better 
than those plaated in November. 

FEBRUARY. 

All wiiiter vegetable's can be sown this month, such as Spinach, 
Mustard, Cariots, Beets, Parsnip an«j Leeks. Also, the eatly 
varieties of Eadisbes and Spring aud Purj^de Top Tufuip, Swiss 
Chard and Kohliabi. 

Sow for succession. Lettuce, Cabbag*^ aud Early Cauliflower ; 
if the season is favorable and the mouth of April not too dry the 
latter may succeed. 

Cauliflower and Cabbage plants should be transplanted j Shal- 
lots divided and st^t out again. 

Sow Sorrel, Koquette, Chervil, Parslev, Cress and Ceh ry. 

Pens of all kinds cau be pdinted, especially the eady vaii.4iea, 
The late kinds should be sown iu January, but they may be planted 
duri fg this motith. 

This is the time to plant the general crop of Potatoes. On an 
average they v>^ill succeed better whea j)Ianted during this, thaa 
during any other month. 

Herb seeds should be planted, tender varieties best sown in a 
frame, as.^d uansplanti d into the Ojjesi giound afterwards. 

Asparagus root-i should be planted; this is the proper month to 
sow the se. d of this vegerabL^. 

Plants in the hot-bed wid require attention j give air when the 
sun shines and the wt-ather is pleasant. If too thick, thin out so 
they may become sturdy. 

Bush Beans caii be commenced with this month; Cucumbers, 
Squash aud Melons may be tried, as they often succeed; if pro- 
tected by small boxes, as most gardeners protect them, there is 
no lisk at all. 

Corn can be planted towards the end of tiiis month. For 
marker, the Adams Extra Early and E rly White Fiint^are 
planted. I reccommend the Sugar varieties for f imily use ; they 
are just as large as those mentioned, and btowel's Evergreen is 
as large as any variety grown. 



^!L 



For the Southern States. 



81 



MaBgel Wurtzel and Sugar Beet sh uld be S'vwnin this month 
for stock. Swewt Potatoes can be put in a bed for sprouting, so 
as to have early slips. 

MARCH. 

Sow Beefs, Eadish, Cabbage, early varieties ; I^nhlrabi, Let- 
tuce, Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Swiss Chard and Leek. 

Also, Celery for cutting, Parsley, Roquette, Cress ai>d Chervil. 
The letter part of the month sow Eiidive. Of L< ttnce, the Royal 
Cabbage and Perpignan; the White Coss is a favorite variety 
for spring ; the Butter head will run into seed t"0 quickly and 
should not be sown later than the middle ot* February iu this 
lati'ude. 

Plant a full supply of Bush and Pole Beans For Lim \ Beans 
better to wait till towa<ds tht^ end of the m mth, as they rot 
easily when the ground is not warm enough, or too wet. 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra can be planted. The 
remark in regard to Lima Beans holds good for Okra. Early 
varieties of Pt-as may still be planted. 

Tomatot'S, Egg Plants and Peppers can be set out in the opeii 
ground, a!.d seed sown for a later crop. Plaut Sweet Corn. 

Potatoes can be plaute'i 5 all depends upon the s ason. Some 
years they do as well as those p aoied daring last month. 

Beans are hard to k^ep in this climate, and thert'fore very 
few are planted for shelling purposes. With a little care how- 
ever, they can be kept, but they ou;>ht not to b.- planted b fore 
the first of August, so that they may ripen when the we tther gets 
cooler. When the season is favorable leiv«^ them out till dry; 
gather the pods and expose them a few days to the sun. It is 
best to shell them at once, and alter they aie shelled f>ut them to 
air and sun agaio for a few da.ys longer. S icks are bet rer to keep 
them ill, than barrels or boxes. The R»^d an i White Kidney are 
generally the varieties used for drying. Beans raised in spring 
are bard to keep, and if intended for seed they sh uld be put up 
in bottles, or in tiu boxes, and a little camphor sprinkled between 
them. 

Sweet potatoes should be planted. 

APRSL. 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, Sweet Corn, Cucumber, 
Sqoasb, Mel 3ns and Okra. 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Radish, Lettuc*^, Mustard, En- 
dive, Roquette, Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery f )r cuttinsr. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plant and Pepper for succession. It is 
rather late to sow Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the early va- 
rieties only can be su(5cesstully used. Kohbabi can still be sown, 
but it is best to sow it thinly in drills a foot apart, and thin out 
to f »UT inches in the rows. 

Towards the end of this month a sowing of the late Italian 
Giant Cauliflower can be made. It is very large, and takes from 
eight to nine months before it matures, so has to be sown early. 
6 



82 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



It is always best to make a coaple of sowings, so that ia case one 
should fail the other may be used. This variety is hardier than 
the French and German kinds. A good plan is to sow the seed 
in boxes, elevated two feet or more above the ground, as it will 
keep the cabbage fly off. The plants should be overlooked daily, 
and all green cabbage worms or other vermin removed. 

Sweet potato Slips, for early crop, can be planted out. Early 
Irish Potatoes will be fit to dig now, and the ground they are 
taken out of may be planted with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

Sow Pumpkins of both kinds, the Field and the (Jashaw. 

German Millet should be sown this month. The ground ought 
to be well plowed and harrowed. Three pecks of seed is the 
quantum to be sown per acre. It will b« well to roll the ground 
alter sowing, and the seed will require no other covering. If no 
roller is handy, some brush tied together ought to be passed over 
the ground sown. For hay, it should be cut when in flower. 
Every planter should give it a trial. 

MAY, 

Yery few varieties of vegetables can be sown during this 
month. Many of the winter varieties will not do well if sown 
now. The grounds should now be occupied with growing crops. 

Where potatoes and Onions are taken up. Corn, Melons, 
Cucumbers, Squash and Pumpkin may be planted. 

Nothing of the Cabbage kind, except the Creole Cabbage seed, 
can be sown this month. It is supposed to stand the heat better 
than the other varieties, but it makes only loose heads, and runs 
up to seed as early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white summer Eadish and Endive should be sown. 
Lettuce requires much water during hot weather, and it neglected, 
it will become hard and tasteless. The Perpignan is the best 
kind for summer use. Okra can still be sown. 

'I he first sowing of White Solid Celery is to be made this 
month. The seed requires to be shaded, and if the weather is 
dry, should be regularly watered. Late Italian Cauliflower 
should be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the corn, or the crowders in 
rows 'y the latter are the best to be used green. If they are sown 
for fertilizing purposes, they are sown one bushel per acre, and 
plowed under when the ground is well covered j or sometimes 
they are left till fall, when they commence to decay, and then 
plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, taking advantage of an 
occasional rain ; if it does not rain they have to be watered. The 
tops of Shallots will commence to get dry ; this indicates that 
they are fit to take up. Pull them up and expose to the sun for 
a few days and then store them away in a dry, airy place, taking 
care not to lay them too thick, as they are liable to heat. Lim^ 
and Pole Beans can be planted ; the Southern Prolific is the best 
variety for late planting. 



i3^ 



For the Southern States. 83 



JUNE. 

This month is simihirto the hist, that is, not a great (k'lil can 
be sowu. The grooving crops will leqnire attention, as weeds 
grow fast. Plant Corn for tlif' last supply of roasting ears. 
A few Wat^r and Musk Melons nuiy be phmted. Oucombers, 
Squash and Pumpkin planted this month generally do very 
well, but the first requires an abundance of water if the weather 
is dry. 

Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be planted during this mont h. 
Continue to set out Sweet Potato Vines. 

Sow Yellow and White Summer Padish, sow Endive for salad; 
this is raised more ea-^ily than the Lettuce. 

Lettuce can be sown, but it requires more care than movst 
people are willing to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an hour in 
water, take them out and put them in a pit-ce of cloth and place 
in a cool spot, under the cistern, or if convenient, in an ice-box. 
Keep the clotb moist and in two or ihree days the seeds will 
sprout. Then sow them; best to do so in the evening and give a 
watering. 

If the seed is sown without being sprouted, ants will be likely 
to carry it away before it can geiminate, and tbe st-edsman be 
blamed for selling seed that did m>t grow. Tbis sprouting has to 
be done from May to September, depending ui)on the weather. 
Should the weather be moist and cool in the fall it can be dis- 
l)enst d with. Some sow late Cabbage for winter crop in this 
month, saying that the plants are easier raised during this than 
the two following months, I consider tbis mouth too soon; 
plants will become too hard and long-legged before they can ba 
planted out. 

This is the last month to sow the Late Italian Cauliflower; 
towards the end, the Early Italian Giant Cauliflower can be 
sown. Some cultivators transplant them, when large enough at 
once J nto the open ground; others plant them first into flower- 
pots and transplant them into the ground later. If transplanted 
at this time, they will require to be shaded for a few days, till 
they commence to grow. 

Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the latter part of this 
mouth. 

JULY. 

Plant Pole Beans ; also Bush Beans towards the end of the 
month. Sow Tomatoes in the early part for the last crop. Some 
Corn for roasting ears may still be planted. Cucumbers can be 
planted for pickling. Early Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Sow 
Endive, Lettuce, Yellow and White summer Radish. Where the 
ground is new, some Turnips and Puta Bagas can be sown. Cab- 
bage should be commenced with after tbe 15th of this month ; 
Superior Plat Dutch, Improved Drumhead, St. Denis, or Bon- 
neuil and Brunswick are the leading kinds. It is hard to say 
which is the best time to sow, as our seasons differ so much — 
some seasons we get frost early, other seasons not before January. 



84 EicJiard Frotsclierh Almanac and Garden Manual 



Cabbage is rocst easily hurt by frost -when it is half grown ; when 
the plants are small, or when fmy are headed up, fr<'Sr does 
not hurt much. It is always good to make t«o or thiee sowings*. 
As a general thing, plants raii^e-l from July nn^l August sown 
seed, give the most satisfaction ; they are almost certain to hend. 
September, in my experience, is the most ticklish month ; as the 
seed sown in that month is gen-rally only half groN^n when we 
have some fi'osts, and theref -re more liable to be hurt. But 
there are exceptions; four yt-ars ago the seed sown in September 
turned out best. Seed sown at the end of October ani during 
2:soTember generally give good results, bat if planted for market, 
will not' bring as much as Cabbage sown in Jidy and August. 
Brunswick is the earliest of tlse lar^re giowin^ kinds, and it 
should be sown in July and August, so that it may be heade I up 
when the cold comes, as it is mort- tender than the Flat Dutch 
and Drumhead. The same may be said iu regard to the St. Denis. 
All Cabbages require strong, good soil, but these two Tarieties 
particularly. Brunswick makes also a very good spring cabbage 
when sown at the end of October. The standard variefies, the 
Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drumhead, should b^ sown 
at the end of this month and during next. It is better to sow 
plenty of seeds than to be short of plants. I would prefer one 
hundred plants raised in July and August to four time?; that 
amount raised in September. It is very hard to protect the young 
plants from the ravages of the fly. Stiong t bacco water is as 
good as anything else for this purpose, oi' tobacco >tems cut fine 
and scattered over the ground will keep them off to some extent. 
As the plants have to be watered, the smell of the tobacco will 
drive the flies away. 

AUGUST. 

This is a very active month for gRrdening in the South. Plant 
Bush Beans, Extra Early and Washington Peas. Sow late Cab- 
bages and Drumhead Savoy, also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and 
Kale. The Early Italian Giant Can iflower may still be S'»wn, 
but now is the proper time to sow the Half Eaily Paris, Asiatic 
and other e-irly varieties. 

Sow Parsley, Eoquette, Chervil, Lettuce, Endive and Sorrel ; 
but in case of dry weather, these seeds will have to be watered 
frequently. 

Continue to sow Yellow Turnip Eadishes, and commence to 
sow red varieties, such as Scarlet Turnip, Half Long Freuch, and 
Long Scarlet. 

Towards the end of the month the Black Spanish Eadish can 
be sown 5 also, Swiss Chard. 

Sow Mustard and Cress j the former will generally do well. 
All kinds of Turnips and Euta Bagas should be sowu : also. Kohl- 
rabi. - ^ 

The seed of all kinds of Beets should be put in the ground. f 

Towards the ead of the month Carrots can be sown ; but the 
sowing of all vegetables at this time of the year depends much 
upon the season. If we should have hot and dry weather, it is 



For the Southern States. 



85 



useless to do much, as seed cannot come up without being water 
ed. White Solid Celery should be sown for a succession, and the 
Dwarf kinds for spiing use. 

Shnllots can be set out during this month ; also Onion Sets, 
especially if they are raised fi om Creole seed. The early part of 
tlie month is the proper time to plant Red and White Kidney 
Beans, for shelling and drying for winter use. 

Early Rose and other varieties of Potatoes should be planted 
early this month for a winter crop, and the latest of Tomato 
plants should be set out, if not done last month. If Celery plants 
are set out during this month they require to be shaded. 

SEPTEMBER. 

Most of the seeds recommended for last month can be sown 
this, and some more added. 

In the early part Bush Beans can be planted, as they will bear 
before frost comes. Plant Extra Early and early varietins of 
Peas. Sow Radishes of all kinds, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify, 
Roquette, Chervil, Parsley, Sorrel, Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Leek, 
Turnips, Kohlrabi, Broccoli, Early Cauliflower, Kale, Celery, Corn 
Salad and Mustard. 

After the 15th of this month Creole Onion seed can be sown. 
This is an important cropj and should not be neglected". If it is 
very dry, cover the bed, after the seed has been sown, with green 
moss; it will keep the ground moist, and the seed will come up 
more regularly. The moss has to be taken off as the young plants 
make their appearance. 

Celery plants may be set out in ditches prepared for that pur- 
pose. Cauliflower and Cabbage plants can be transplanted if the 
weather is favorable. 

If the weather is not too hot and dry, Spinach should be sown; 
but it is useless to do so if the weather is not suitable. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much better to sow in August 
and transplant during this month. 

Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be divided and replanted. 

Sow Turnip rooted Celery. 

OCTOBER. 

Artichokes should be dressed, the suckers or sprouts taken off, 
and new plantings made. 

Onion seed can still be sown ; but it is better to get the seed 
into the ground as soon as possible, so the plants get to be some 
size before the cold weather- comes. 

Towards the end of the month. Black Eye Marrowfat Peas can 
be planted; also English or Windsor Beans. 

Sow Cabbage, Cauliflower. Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Kale, 
Spinach, Mustaid, Swiss Chard, Carrots, Beets, Salsify, Leek, 
Coru Salad, Parsley, Roquette, Chervil, Kohlrabi, Radish, Let- 
tuce, Endive and Parsnip. Shallots from the first planting can 
be divided, and set out again. Sal>ify does very finely h^re, but 
is generally sown too late ; this is the proper month to sow the 



86 Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



seed. The ground should be mellow and have been manured last 
spring. It should be spaded up very deeply j as the size and 
smoothness of the roots depend upon the preparation of the 
soil. 

Water the Celery with soap suds, and if the season has been 
favorable, by the end of this month some may be earthed up. 

Sow Eye, Barley and Eed Oats, Orchard Grass, Eed and White 
Clover, and Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants should be trans- 
planted ; they cannot be left in the same spot for three or four 
years, as is done North. The Wilson's Albany and Longsworth's 
Prolific are the favorite varieties for the market. 

The Wilson's Albany do not make many runners here, but they 
form a stool something like the plants of violets, and these stools 
have to be taken up and divided. 

NOVEMBER. 

Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, Eadish, Lettuce, Mus- 
tard, Eoquette, Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnips, Cress 
and Endive, also Turnips and Cabbage. Superior Flat Dutch 
and Improved Drumhead, sown in this month, make fine Cabbage 
in the spring. 

Artichoke should be dressed, if not already done last month. 

Sow Black Eye and other late varieties of Peas. Frost does 
not hurt them as long as they are small, and during this time ot 
the year, they will grow but very slowly. English Beans can be 
planted ; frost does not hurt them, and if not planted soon they 
will not bear much. 

Manure for hot beds should be looked after, and ought not to 
be over one month old. It should be thrown together in a heap, 
and when heated forked over again, so the long and short ma- 
nure will be well mixed. The first vegetables generally sown in 
the hot beds are Cucumbers 5 it is best to start them in two or 
three inch pots, and when they have two rough leaves, transplant 
them to their place j two good plants are sufficient under every 
sash. 

DECEMBER. 

Not a great deal is planted during this month as the ground is 
generally occupied by the growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop; some potatoes may be risked, 
but it is uncertain whether they will succeed or not. 

Sow Spinach, Eoquette, Eadish, Carrots, Lettuce, Endive and 
Cabbage. 

Early vaiieties of Culiflower can be sown in a frame or shel- 
tered situation, to be transplanted in February into the open 
ground. Early Cabbages such as York, Oxheart and Winning- 
standt, may be sown. 

To those who wish to force Tomatoes, I will say that this is the 
month to sow them. The best kind for that purpose is the Extra 
Early Dwarf Eed. It is really a good acquisition; it is very 
dwarfish, very productive, and of good size and bears the fruit in 
clusters. 



mm 



For the Southern States. 



PLANTERS' AND GARDENERS' PRICE LIST. 



Cost of Mailing Seeds. Orders for ounces and ten cent papers 

are mailed free of postage, except Beans, Peas and Corn. If any 

of tliese in large papers are ordered by mail postage must be paid 
by the purchaser, or, I will send small sized i^apers and prepay 
the postage. On large sized papers of some varieties of Beans 
and Peas, the postage will cost more than the papers of same. 
On orders by the pound and quart au advance of sixteen cents 
per pound and thirty cents per quart, must be added to quota- 
tions for postage. 

Artichoke, per oz. per lb. 

Large Green Globe $0 50 $6 00 

Asparagus, 

Large Purple Top 10 100 

Beans, (Dwarf, Snap or Bush,) per quart. pev gal. 

Extra Early Six Weeks or Newington Wonder. .$0 25 |l 00 

Early Red Speckled Valentine 25 1 00 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks 25 100 

Early Yellow Six Weeks 25 100 

Dwarf German Wax (Stringless) 30 1 20 

White Kidney 20 75 

Red Speckled French 20 80 

Early China Red Eye 25 100 

Red Kidney • 20 75 

Dwarf Golden Wax (New) 30 120 

Beans (Pole or Running), 

Large Lima 50 ^00 

Caroline or Sewee 50 '2'M 

Horticultural or Wren's Egg 40 150 

Dutch Case Knife 40 150 

German Wax (Stringless) 50 2 00 

Southern Prolific 50 2 00 

Crease Back 50 2 00 

Beans, English, 

BroadWindsor 30 100 

Beet, per oz, iper lb. 

Extra Early or Bassano..-. $0 10 $1 00 

Simon's Early Red Turnip 10 75 

Early Blood Turnip 10 75 

Long Blood 10 75 

Half Long Blood 10 100 

Egyptian Red Turnip 10 125 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel 10 '0 50 

White French or Sugar 10 50 

Silver or Swiss Chard 10 125 

Borecole or Curled Kale, 

Dwarf German Greens 15 HO® 

Broccoli, 

Purple Cape 30 '4 00 

Brussels Sprouts 30 4 00 



88 Bichard FrotscJier^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

Cabbage. per oz. per lb. 

Ear] V York 25 $2 50 

EarlV Large York 25 2 50 

Early Sugar Loaf 25 3 00 

Early L'^rge Oxheart ^ 25 3 00 

Early Wiiining^tadt 25 3 00 

Jersey Wakefield 50 5 00 

Earlv Flat Dutch. 25 3 00 

Large Fla Brunswick 30 4 00 

Fotler's Improved Brmiawick 35 • 5 00 

Improved Large Lare Drumhead 35 5 00 

Superior Larf<e Late Flat Dutch 35 5 00 

Eed Dutch (for Pickling) 30 4 00 

Green Globe Savoy 25 3 00 

Early "Dwarf Savoy 25 3 00 

Drumhead Savoy 30 4 00 

St. Denis or Chou Bonnenil 30 4 00 

Canlifloi;ver. 

Extra Early Paris 100 12 00 

Half Early' Paris 100 12 00 

LargeAsiatic 100 12 00 

Early Erfurt 100 15 00 

LeNormand'b Short Stemmed 1 00 15 00 

Early Italian Giant 100 15 00 

Imperial 100 12 00 

Late Italian Giant 100 15 00 

Non Plus Ultra 100 15 00 

Carrots. 

Early Scarlet Horn = .. 10 150 

Half Long Scarlet French 10 120 

Half Long Luc 10 120 

Improved Long Orange 10 100 

Long Eed, without core 10 120 

St. Valerie (New) 10 120 

Celery. 

Large White Solid 30 4 00 

Incomparable Dwarf White 30 4 00 

Saudringham's Dwarf White 30 4 00 

Large Eibbed Dwarf (New) 30 4 00 

Turnip Eooted 30 4 00 

Cutting 15 2 00 

Chervil. 

GreenCurled - 20 2 00 

CoUards ».. 20 200 

Corn Salad 15 2 00 

Corn. per quart per gal. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar... 25 |0 80 

Adams' Extra Early 20 60 

Early Sugar or Sweet 20 75 

Stowell's Evergreen Sugar... 20 75 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed 20 60 

Early Yellow Canada ..._ 15 60 

Large White Flint 15 - 0^60 

Blunt's Prolific, Field (New; 20 75 

Cress. per oz. per lb. 

Curled or Pepper Grass 10 $100 

Broadleaved ....,, 20 3 00 



Fot the Southern States. 89 

Cucumber. per oz. per lb. 

Improved Early White Spine 15 $125 

Early Frame 15 125 

Long Green Turkey 20 2 00 

Early Cluster 15 150 

Gherkin or Burr (for pickling) 25 4 00 

Eg'gplant. 

Large Purple or New Orleans Market 50 6 00 

Endive. 

Green Curled 20 2 50 

Extra Fine Curled •. . . 20 2 50 

Broad leave or Escarolle 20 2 50 

Kohl Rabi. 

Early White Vienna 25 4 00 

Leek. 

Large London Flag , 25 4 00 

Large Carentan 30 4 00 

Lettuce. 

Early Cabbage or White Batter 25 3 00 

Improved Royal Cabbage 25 3 00 

Brown Dutch 30 3 00 

Drumhead Cabbage 25 2 50 

White Paris Co88 30 3 00 

Large Curled India 25 4 00 

Perpignan 30 4 00 

Improved Large Passion 30 4 00 

Melon, Musk or Canteloupe. 

Netted Nutmeg - 10 100 

Netted Citron • 10 100 

PineApple .- 10 100 

Early White Japan 10 125 

Persian or Cassaba... 15 1 25 

New Orleans Market 20 2 00 

Melon, Water. 

Mountain Sweet 10 100 

Mountain Sprout 10 135 

Improved Gipsey 15 150 

Ice Cream (White Seeded) 15 150 

Orange..... 20 2 00 

Rattlesnake ------ 15 150 

Cuban Queen 15 150 

Mustard. 

White or Yellow Seeded 10 40 

Largeleaved 10 100 

Nasturtium, 

Tall 25 3 00 

Dwarf 30 4 00 

Okra 

Tall Growing 10 100 

Dwarf T 10 1 00 

Onion. 

Yellow Dutch or Strassburg 25 4 00 

Large Red Weathtrr field 25 4 00 

White or Silver Skin • 25 4 00 

Creole. Sold out 

Italian Onion, 

NewQueen.. 35 5 00 

GiantRocca 30 4 00 

Shallots. 



90 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac aiid Garden Manual 



Parsley. 

Plain Leaved 

Double Curled 

Improved Garnishing 

Parsnip. 

Hollow Crown or Sugar. . . 

Peas. 

Extra Early 

Tom Thumb 

Early Washington 

Laston's Alpha 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod. 

Champion of England 

McLean's Advancer 

McLean's Little Gem , 

Laxton's Prolific Long Pod 

Eugene 

Dwarf Blue Imperial 

Royal Dwarf Marrow 

Black-Eyed Marrowfat 

Large White Marrowfat . . 

Dwarf Sugar , 

Tall Sugar 

American Wonder . 

Field or Cow Peas Market price. 

Pepper. 

Bell or Bull Nose 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 

Long Red Cayenne 

Red Cherry 

Potatoes. 

Early Rose ^ 

Breese's Peerless I ing to market 

Russets I 

Extra Early Vermont f Quotations 

Snowflake r | given on 

Beauty of Hebron J tion. 

Potatoes, Sweet. 

Yam 

Shanghai or California Yam 

Pumpkin. 

Kentucky Field 



per oz. 

10 
10 
15 

10 



30 
30 
20 
40 
30 
30 
30 
40 
40 
30 
30 
25 
15 
20 
50 
50 
75 



per lb. 

$1 00 
1 25 
1 50 

1 20 



1 00 
1 00 
75 
1 20 
1 00 
I 20 



40 
50 
40 
40 



2 00 
2 00 
2 50 



4 00 

5 00 
4 00 
4 00 



Prices vary accord- 



will be 
applica- 



? Prices vary according to market. Quota- 
5 tions will be given on application, 



Large Cheese 

Cashaw Crook-Neck. 



per quart. 

25 

per oz. 
10 

10 



per gal. 

$1 00 

per lb. 

SO 75 
1 00 



Kadish. 

Eax]y Long Scarlet 

Early Scarlet Turnip 

Yellow Summer Turnip 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. 

White Summer Tuinip 

Scarlet Half Long French. . 
Black Spanish (Winter).... 
Chinese Rose (Winter) 

Koquette 



Salsify (AmericaD), 
Spinacli. 



Extra Large Leaved Savoy. 
Broadleaved Flanders. 



10 
10 
10 
10 
15 
10 
15 
15 

20 

25 



10 
10 



00 
00 
00 
20 
00 
20 
50 



3ao 

4 00 



50 



For the Southern States. 91 

Squash, per oz. per lb. 

Early Bush or Patty Pan 15 $100 

Long Green or Summer Crook-Neck 15 1 50 

London Vegetable Marrow 20 2 00 

The Hubbard 15 125 

Boston Marrow 15 150 

Tomato, 

Extra Early Dwarf Red. 50 6 00 

Early Large Smooth Red 25 3 00 

Tilden . 25 3 00 

Trophy (selected; 50 6 00 

Large Yellow 30 4 00 

Acme (new) 40 " 5 OO 

Paragon 30 4 00 

Turnip, 

Early Red or Purple Top (strap-leaved) 10 60 

Early White Flat'Dutch (strap-leaved) 10 60 

Large White Globe 10 60 

White Spring 10 60 

Yellow Aberdeen 10 75 

Golden Ball 10 75 

Purple rop Ruta Baga 10 60 

Munich, Early Purple Top 15 2 00 

Purple Top Globe 10 75 

Improved Ruta Baga 10 75 

Sweet and Medicinal Herbs, per package. 

Anise 10c 

Balm 10 

Basil 10 

Bene 10 

Borage 10 

Caraway 10 

Dill , 10 

Fennel _ 10 

Lavender 10 

Majoram 10 

Pot Marigold - 10 

Rosemary ...„ _.. .. lo 

Rue 10 

Sage 10 

Summer Savory 10 

Thyme 10 

Wormwood 10 

Grass and Field Seeds, 

Red Clover 

White Dutch Clover 

Alsike Clover 

Alfalfa or French Lucerne 

Kentucky Blue Grass 

Rescue Grass ^ 

Hungarian Grass f "C a 

German Millet v ^ "* 

Rye /| § 

Barley 1 u do 

Red or Rust Proof Oats ivS © 

Sorghum 1'*^ '-« 

Broom Corn I -g 

Buckwheat | n 

Johnson Grass / ^ 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass ^ 

Prices of larger quantities of seed will be given on application. 
Peas and Beans very low if ordered by the bushel. 



92 Eicliard Frotscliers Almanac and Garden Manual 

The folloTTins: letter on ••Alfalfa" or ''Lucerne.'*' has been writ- 
ten by E. M. Hudson, E-q., a gentleman wko is a close observer, 
and has given the subject a great deal of attention, it will be 
found very instructive : 

Villa Eeiedheevl, 
Mobile County. Ala., September 7, 1S78. 
Mr. E. Eeotscher, ^ew Orle-^ns. La.: 

Dear Sir : — Your letter of the 3d inst. has jusr reached me. and 
i cheerfully comply with your request to give you the results of 
my experiments with Lucerne or Alfalfa, and my opinion of it as 
a forage plant for the South. 

I preface my statement with the observation that my experi- 
ments have iDeen conducted on a natuarally poor, piney woods 
soil (which would be classed as a sandy soil), varying in depth 
from six inches to one foot. But I have a good red clay sub-soil, 
which enables the soil to retain the fertilizers applied to it. thus 
rendering it susceptible of permanent enriching. 

Three years since, when my attention was first directed to Al- 
falfa, I sought the advice of the editor of the Journal of Progress, 
Professor Stelle, who informed me that, after attempting for sev- 
eral years to cultivate it, he had desisted. He stated that the 
plant, at Citron elle, in this county, died out every summer, not 
being able to withstand the hot suns of our climate. Discouraged 
but not dismayed. I determined to test the matter on a small scale 
at fi.rst. HaviDg procured some seed in March. 1876. I planted 
them on a border in my garden, and gave nether manure nor 
work that season. The early summer here that year was very 
dry: there was no rain whatever from the first of June to the 23d 
ot'july and from the 2d of August to the loth of November 
not a drop of rain fell on my place. Yet during all this time, my 
Alfalfa remained fresh, bloomed, and was cut two or three times. 
On the 1st of November 1 dug some of it. to examine the habit 
of root growth: and to my astoni^hment found it necessary to 
go 22 inches below the surface to reach anything like the' end 
of the top roots. At once it was apparent that the plant was. by 
its very habit of grow-th. adopted to hot and dry cbmates. It is 
indeed"^a -child of the sun."" 

Eucouragedby thi> experiment, in which I purposely refrained 
from giving the Alfalfa any care beyond cutting it occasiisnally, 
last year. 1 proceeded on a larger scale, jilanting both spring and 
fa 1, as I have done agnin this year to ascertain the best season 
for put'ing in the s-ed. My experience teaches that there is do 
preference.to be given to sprang sowings over those of autumn 
provided only, there be enough mois ure in the S'Ul to make the 
seed germinate, which t-iCy do more quickly and more surely than 
the best turnips. Two winters have proved tome that the Altaifa 
remains green throughout the wi:.ter m this latitude. 25 miies 
yorth of Mobile, and at an altitude of 4UU feet above tide-vater. 
Therefore I shouhi prefer fall Sowing which wid give the fii\<t 
cutting from the first of Mai ch to the 1st of April following. This 
season my fir>tcut!ing was made on the 1st of April : ana I have 
cut it since re^ularlv everv four or six weeks, accordingr to the 



For the Southern States. 93 



weather, to cure for liay. Meanwliile a portion has been cut 
almost daily for feeding- gie^ni, or soiling, IJsed in the latter way 
{for under no circumstauces must it ever be pastured), I am able to 
give my stor'k fresh, green food, fully four weeks before the na- 
tive wild grasses commeoce to put out. I deem it best to cut the 
day before, what is fed greeo, in order to let it become thoroughly 
wilted before using. Aftf^r a large number of experiments with 
horses, Diales, cattle and swine, I can aver that in no instance, 
from March to November, have I found a case when any of these 
animals would not give the preference to Alfalfa over every kind 
of grass (also soiled) kDOwu in this region. And, while Alfalfa 
makes a sweet and nutritious hay eagerly eaten by all kinds of 
slock, it is <ns a forage plant for soiling, which is available lor at 
least nine months in the year, that I esteem it so bigWy. The hay 
is easily cured, if that winch is cut in the forenoon is thrown into 
small cocks at noon, then spread out after the dew is off next 
morning, sunned for -mi hour, and at once hauled into the barn. 
By this method the leaves do not fall off, which is sure to be the 
case, if the Alfalfa is exposed to a d y or two of hot sunshine. 

It has b^en my habit to precede the Alfalfa with a clean crop 
— usually Eutabagas, after which I sow clay peas, to be turned 
in about the last of July. About the middle of September or 
later 1 have the land plowed, the turo-plow being followed by a 
deep sub-soil plow or sc^ooter. After this the land is fertilized and 
harrowed until it is thoroughly pulverized aud all lumps broken 
up. The fertilizers employed by me are 500 lbs. fine bone-dust 
(phosphate of lime) ami 1000 lbs. cottoii seed hull ashes per acre. 
These ashes are very rich in potash aod j>hosphates, containing 
nearly 45 i)er cent, of the pho8[fhat3 of lime — the two articles best 
adapted to the wants of this plan:. I sow all my Alfalfa with the 
Matthew's Seed Drill, in rows 10 inches apart. Broad-cast would 
be preferable, if the land was perfectly free from grass and 
weeds; bat, as it takes several years of clean culture to put the 
land in this condition, sowing" in dribs is v>ractically the best. No 
seed sower known to me can be compared with the Matthew's 
Seed Drill. Its work is evenly and regularly done, and with a 
rapidity that is astonishing; for ic opens the drill to any desired 
depth, drops the vseed, covers and rolls them, and marks the line 
for the next drill at one operation. I^ is simple and durable in its 
structure, and is the gi eaters t labor- saving machine of its kind 
ever devised for band- work. 

When my Alfalfa is about three inches liigh, I work it with the 
M^itthew^s Hand Cultivator. First, the front tooth of the culti- 
vator is taken out, by which means the row is straddled and all 
the grass cut ou^ close to the plant ; then the front tootii being 
replaced, the cultivatoj- is passed between the rows, completely 
cleaning the middles of all fou! growth. As often as required to 
keep down grass, until the Alfalfa is large enough to cut, the 
Matthew's Hand Cultivator is x>assed betweeu the rows. 

Alfalfa require* three years to reach perfection, out even the 
first year the yield is larger tiian movst forage plants, and after 
the second it is enormous. The land must, however, be made 



94 Richard Frotschefs Almanac and Garden Manual 



rich at first 5 a top-dressing every three years is all that will 
Thereafter be required. The seed must be very lightly covered, 
and should be rolled, or brushed in, if not sowed with a Mat- 
thew's Seed Sower. 

Whenever the plant is in bloom it must be cut"; for, if the seed 
be left to mature, the stems become hard and woody. Also, 
whenever it turns yellow, no matter at what age, it must be cut 
or mowed; for the yellow color shows the presence of some dis- 
ease, or the work of some small insect, both of which seems to be 
remedied by moving xjrouipily. My experience leads me to the 
conclusion that fully five tons of cured hay per acre may be 
counted on, if proper attention be given to deep plowing, subsoil- 
ing, fertilizing and cleanliness of the soil. These things are in- 
dispensable, and without them no one need attempt to cultivate 
Alfalfa. 

In conclusion, I will remark that I have tried thf^ Lucerne seed 
imported by you from France, side by side with the Alfalfa seed 
sent me by Trumbull & Co., of San Frnncisco, and I cannot see 
the slightest difference in appearance, character, quantity or qual- 
ity of yield, or hardiness. They are identical 5 both have ger- 
minated equally well, that is to say, j^erfectly. 

In closing, I cannot do better than refer you to the little trea- 
tise of Mr. 0. W. Howard, entitled: "A Manual of the Cultiva- 
tion of the Grasses and Forage Plants at the South." Mr. How- 
ard, among the very first to cultivate Lucerne in the South, gives 
it the preference over all other forage plants whatever. My ex- 
perience confirms all that Mr. Howard claims for it. Certainly, 
a plant that lasts a generation is worthy of the bestowal of some 
time, patience and money to realize what a treasure they can se- 
cure for themselves. I confidendy believe that in ten years from 
this date the Alfalfa will be generally cultivated throughout the 
entire South. 

I am, respectfully yours, 

E. M. HUDSON, 

Counsellor at Law, 

20 Carondelet Street, 

New Orleans. 



STKAWBERRY GROWING IN THE GULF 
STATES, 

WITH A DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES SUITED TO THE SOIL 

AND CLIMATE, AND BEST METHODS OF GROWING 

AND PROPAGATING THE SAME. 



By S. M. Wiggins, Secretary Fruit Growers' Association. 



In an article written for a former issue of Frotscher^s Almanac 
and Catalogue, we endeavored to give brief and practical direc- 
tions as to the best methods of growing this delicious fruit. 

We have had no cause to change our views since that time 
regarding the methods of culture, with this exception, to impress- 



For the Southern States. 95 



upon our readers the necessity of practising economy in time, 
cultivation, the application of fertilizers, and more ap])roved 
methods of handling and marketing the fruit. A great change 
has taken place within the i)ast two years; formerly our growers 
were restricted almost entirely to the Kew Orleans market, then 
a very poor one and easily overstocked. Now our Louisiana, 
Mississippi and Alabama growers may with safety transport 
their fruit, thanks to refrigerator cars, the cheapening of rates, 
and quicker transportation to Memphis, Cairo, St. Louis, Chica- 
go, Louisville, Cincinnati, and a score of smaller towns and vil- 
lages, where a ready sale can be had, not only for the quantity 
now grown, but ten times the amount. 

Still, we have much to learn, and it will be my endeavor to 
show how to succeed in making the business both lucrative and 
pleasant. This may be best obtained by a system of 

CO-OPRKATION. 
Small fruit and vegetable growers should, if possible, live in 
communities — tracts of land should be selected which are capable 
of proper subdivision. On these tracts, divided into fields, pas- 
ture and woodlands, situated' not over two and a half miles from 
a vilage or station, the grower of small fruits should make his 
home. In such a location he will have the advantage, first, of 
suitable labor to assist him in his work, next, he can control re- 
frigerator cars and other improved means of transportation, be- 
sides save money on car load rates, the purchase of crates and 
baskets, and in addition to all this, he will be freed from the 
isolation of rural life. A community of this kind will support 
not only churches and schools for its children, but the Grange 
and Horticultural Clubs, where views may be interchanged, and 
all have opportunities of learning better methods of work, with 
the additional advantages of social intercourse; therefore we 
would advise horticulturists by all means to choose a home in a 
fruit-growing community, even if he has to pay double or even 
treble price for his land. 

TIME FOR PREPARATION. 

In the lower part of the Gulf States where the ground is never 
frozen sufficiently to retard work, and where snow and ice are 
almost unknown, the work of preparing the land is always in 
order. 

But the real work commences in our climate at any time, from 
April to June, and the earlier the better. The land should be 
cleansed and fertilized, all noxious weeds and grasses should be 
destroyed. 

We have a great deal of land in all portions of the State, and 
especially in our alluvium, overrun with weeds and grass, which 
should be got rid of as soon as possible ; in addition, there are 
very few localities which will not be benefited by fertilizers, 
to apply these practically and economically must be our aim. 
The very best mode of preparing the soil will be to sow a crop 
of peas for the purpose, which shade the land and enrich it by 



96 Bichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



affording a most valuable green crop, to plow or spade urder 
during the latter part of August or September, this will leave 
the ground iu fine condition for setting out the plants, which 
should be done as early as possible. Much, however, depeads 
upon the f 11 rans, unless the planter is provided with proper 
facilities for iirigation. 

OTHER FERTILIZERS. 

Of course, the cow pea is by no means the only fertilizer 
which may be used. Leaf mold from the woods, barnyard manure, 
superphosphate, well rotted cotton seed or cotto*! seed meal, 
bone meal, land plaster, poultry guano and unl^ached ashes are 
all excellent, the m in point will he to apply it abundantly and at 
the ligLit time, for the strawberry is a gross feeder, remembering 
always to give preference to home made fertilizers, wbich in 
ninety nine cases in a hundred are better th.in commercial 
manures, whi h C(»st in the aggregate a large sum, which may 
otherwise be kt-pt at home. 

PREPARING THE LAND. 

All low flat lands shou d be well ditched, although the 
strawberry loves moistuje, it is easily drowned out. In choosing 
a location of higher lands, it should he as near level as possible, 
consistent with tho ougb drainage. We can conceive of no better 
situation for a sr i aw berry farm than the rich hammock bordering i 
the water courses of onr pine woods parishes, and especially on j 
new freshly cie.-»ned lands. In situations of that sort, fruit may 
be grown of a size and sweetness that would .astonish the resideat^s i 
of our alluvial parishes, besides the soil, if well cultivated, does | 
not sufft-r so much fiom the effects of a drouth, and the plants j 
are longer lived. ! 

PLOWING AND SPADING. ! 

In small gardens, where it is impossible to use a pow, or where j 
a small bed will suf&ce for the wants of a family, the spade may 
be used with good effect. In field culture, however, the turn 
plow and sub^oiler will do equnlly as good work. The plant 
loves a deep aud lich S'dl, and the use of the subsoil plow will go 
much towards mttigatin^ the effects of a prolongea dr.)uth. The 
fertilizing material must be kept near the surf-^ice, or not buried 
over three or four i ches beneath. After the ground is well pre- 
pared, a Thomas smo -thing, or a rotary harrow, shoald be lASed 
to thoroughly pulverize the soil. 

SETTING OUT THE YOUNG PLANTS. 

The plants should be set out as soon as possible after they are 
received from the nursery. Our expeiience has taugbt us that 
more plants are lost annually hy keeping them in boxes or tied 
in bundles, thus Crjusing the ciown to decay, than by planting 
immediately on arrival, regardless of the weather. When one 
has plants of his own, they should be dug from day to day as 
wanted. 



For the Southern States. 97 



When all is in readiness, liufs should be stret'lind, and the 
rows rnnde as long hs possible, to suve labor in cuUivation. '^Ihe 
roo's should be trimmed, and the plants droi)i)ed one f<»ot aput 
in the lows, a; ways keeping on ihe s.ime side. This rn^iy be done 
bychil'iren; careful pt^rsons should follow as soon as possib'e, 
opening the f-oil with a stout pudtlle or steel h >ii(l- planter, pr**>s- 
ing ihe earth firmly about the plant, alw^iys lakiig care to spr- ad 
the roots and keep the crown entitely nbove the suiface. More 
plants are b st yearly from too deep planting thm fiom all other 
cans* s combined. 

In our Southern climite the strawberry wi'l (u >less the sf-ason 
is extraordinaiily c 1 1) grow all winter an i pro<iu e a fair crop 
of fiuit the following spring; hence we will Jip|.re<i t«" tite neces- 
sity of keeping the ground clean and free f(Oin wint r wi e<is by 
the use of the htie and cul ivator. Care shonhl also be taken to 
cultivate lightly and avoid disturbing tije roots. 

MULOHING. 

During the winter the materials for mnlchincr must be gathered 
and distributed in long pies through the midd es where it will 
be handy when need<'d. We do not approv^e «»f placing the ma- 
terial around the plants until wanted, as i^ shades the grou'd, 
prevents the formation of roots and dev- lopment of tlie fruit buds 
and foliage. In fact, it needs all the su shine t)os-ible. When 
the berri* s are about halfgrowt), then the "ork of mulching mu-t 
be done, if you wish clean and marketable fruit. Ln our pine 
lands, nothing is better th uj ])ine str iw, bur grass, hroom sedge, 
forest leaves or branches of evergreen will answer; the fruir and 
foliige must be lifc'^d carefdlly and the material placed under- 
neath. The good effects will be seen l»y an abundance of clean, 
merchantable fmit, and the increased price obtained wh' n off red 
for sale. Wash Uii the fruit is very object onable ; it is a lazy 
makeshift, spoils the flavor, ruins the be ry r.nd is a device prac- 
ticed only by the shiftless growers in the viciuiiy of market to 
avoid work. 

PICKING AND MARKETING. 

The careful planter will see befretli^ time of piekingr comes 
that he is provided with an amph^ supply of crates an<l boxes; 
a shed or piece of canva-^s for sheber, and a low table mad^ 
of plank foi- packing; al-o a number of checks or cards, with 
numbers print d thereon — tiie latter to be punched out as each 
box of fruit is delivered to^th^ superinrendeu' or packer. When 
aU is ready, each picker should be provided wiih i tra\ or box, with 
handles, to contain s jy, ten boxes of fruit. Success with s'ra^v- 
berries depends much on the character of ihe man who raises 
them. If he gains a reputation for honesty, Crtr ful -ess and f ir 
dealing he will have to adopt th ■ fol'owing rules: Pick nothing 
but Nound, weli rijjened and perf-'ct fruit Give good measure, 
and have the boxes well til ed. Pack tightly in the era es, a>id 
convey carefully to the shipping point. Select an honest, cap- 

7 



98 Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



able merchaDt to dispose of the fruit, pay liim a fair commission 
for so doing, and your fruit will always find a ready sale at full 
market i3rices. 

THE PEOFITS OF STRAWBEKRY GROWING. 

Of course the profits will depend mucli ui^on the seasons. We 
have never known a complete failure of the strawberry crop in 
the Gulf St;ites. But we think we are not far out of the way 
when we give the average net proceeds of an acre of land prop- 
erly cultivated in strawberries at one hundred dollars. 



VARIETIES. 

There are two hundred approved kinds, more or less ; 
nearly all have their champions. But all practical fruitgrowers 
have abou": come to the conclusion that if all were destroyed, 
except the old-fashioned Wilson's Albany, no one would be the 
loser. We do not concur in so sweeping a verdict on all new 
kinds, but for Louisiana a person will not go far out of the way 
if he adopt the Wilson until he is satisfied that he has something 
better. 

Longu'orWs Frolific. — It seems like going back a half a century 
to recommend the Loogworth, but we consider it among the 
most valuable as a profitable kind for market, hardy, prolific, but 
not first class for eating — too sour. It succeeds well in the 
vicinity of ^ew Orleans. 

Imperial. — Were we called on to decide utdou the best berry for 
the table and especially valuable as a family fruit, we would 
choose this variety above all. It is too soft for market, however, 
unless it can be carried by hand ; not very prolific, unless cultur- 
ed in stools ', stands our climate well and runs tremendously. A 
frieod obtained over three hundred plants from two the first sea- 
son ; needs high cultivation and rich soil. 

Charles Downing. — Has many friends, and deservedly so. Plant 
hardy in Louisiana, lives well through our trying summer, produces 
a very large fine flavored berry, on foot stalks well off the 
ground ; fruit most too soft for long transit. It has one serious 
fault, viz : a disposition to decay on the vines durtug a spell of 
wet weather. 

Captain JacJc. — Plant hardy and vigorous, but it does not pos- 
sess enough good qualities to entitle it to precedence over any 
above mentioned. 

Mary Stuart. — A pistillate variety originating in Louisiana ; 
must be planted near some staminate plant to produce fruit. 
Berry excellent quality and flavor in a dry season ; plant hardy, 
prolific and healthy, like all fine flavored kinds, too soft for a 
distant market. 



For the Southern States. 99 



Crescent Seedling. — We cannot recommend the Crescent, also a 
pistillate variety, unless one desires to grow a large quantity of 
very poor fruit. We have rejected it after two seasons' trial. 

President Lincoln. —When it is desired to produce monstrous 
specimens of ill-shaped ffuit for exhibition, this kind will find 
friends, especially among amateurs. Plant tolorably hardy, and 
moderately productive ; needs rich soil and high culture. 

Sharpless. — An excellent large-sized berry moderately healthy, 
productive and of m'od quaiitj^ We understand that it succeeds 
well with good culture on our high hammocks. We will accord 
the Sharpless a further trial. 

Cumberland Triumph. — A. large fine solid berry of regular shape 
and good qualitj^ The foilage of the plant is abundant, conse- 
quently stands the heat of our summers well, fruit large, conical, 
scarlet in color and very prolific. 

Continental. — Plant hardy and healthy, but a shy bearer with 
us 'j we consider it worthless for southern culture. 

JuGunda. — With us worthless. 

Boydenh No. 30.— An excellent fruit of fine quality, but owing 
to leaf fiight, we have abandoned it. 

Miner'' s Great Prolific. — This variety, so promising last season, 
has failed us this year. We propose, however, to accord it a 
further trial owing to the healthy growth of the plant, and its 
capability of standing our long dry season. 

The berry is firm, of excellent taste and flavor,, of good size and 
color. A very prolific variety. 

Nunan, or Charleston Seedling. — This is the great market berry 
grown so extensively in Georgia and South Carolina for the 
Northern markets. We understand that it is prolific fruit, of 
good size and early; qualities that will recommend it everywhere. 
As it succeeds finely in the South Atlantic States, it will doubtless 
answer equally as well in Louisiana and Mississippi. 

JEndicott^s Seedling. — This is a seedling of Boyden's 30, and very 
similar in appearance, only the berries are larger and foilage 
healthier and more abundant. Quality first rate, though the fruit 
is somewhat tender for a distant market ; we would class this 
variety as first class for an amateur-gardener, or parties living 
in close proximity to a city. 

NEWER KINDS. 

Bidwell.~A new variety originating in Michigan, where it has 
been grown for a series of years. It has also been tested by many 



100 Eichard Frotsclier^s Almanac and Garden Afanual 

prominent horticulturists in the North, who write eiithnsiastically 
in is favor. Perhaps some of these gentlemen have plants to sell 
(Quie7i sabe). At any rate we intend investing in a dozen or two 
plants of the Bidweli, plant th» m in Louisiana foil, and patient y 
abide the result. It is described as first class in size, quality and 
everything else. 

Manchester. 

And now comes the long sought for, found a^ last, Strawberry 
— something to excel the Wilson in hea'th. productiveness, firm- 
ness, size, flavor, beauty, general adaptabili y to all kinds of 
soils, and every variety of climnfe. We must have a dozen or 
two plants of this variety, provided our iSew Jersey friends, 
with whom it oiiginated, will not chrirge us over one dollar a 
plant. It is said to be a plant with large foilage, immense foot 
stalks holding a large, magnificent fruif well off the ground, 
very firm, of good quality, and immensely prolific, either in poor 
or rich soils. From evidences in its favor we deem it worthy 
of a fair trial. 

Longfellow. 

A fine large, pointed berry, of excellent quality, and worthy 
to be largely disseminated. Succeeds well in Arkansas, Tennes- 
see, North Mississippi and Alabama. Like many first cla^^s 
fruits it is too tender for distant market. 

Warren, Champion, Glendale, Garden and Red JackH are 
newer sorts not yet tested in the South, but highly laude<l in the 
North and West. ShouLl our readers wish to test thesn new 
candidates for i)ublic favor, some of them will doiibtless prove 
valuable. We would, however, impress upon Al concerned, t ) 
go slow, and not to spend much money on tisem. A ^m dl 
experimental plat of ground, fifty f-et square, well exposed to 
the sun, and made rich with well rotted compost, or whereon a 
crop of cow periS have been grown and turned under, would meet 
all require n en ts. On a piece of soil prep ^red in this w^y, and the 
plants th reon well cultivated and cared for-, th^^ true value of a 
new varif-ty could be determined for that particular locality in 
one, or at least two se;^sons. It is hard for a i-rc^gre-sive truit 
grower to resist a brilliant description of a new kmd of Iru t, 
which, if it succeed, will make him a forfune ; but it is well to 
temper enthusiasm with prudence. Small fruit g- owing has 
made great strides since the time we m ide our first venture in 
the strawberry pat<*.h. When <ine quart was sold at that time, a 
thousand now find a ready sale. Dr. Hexamer, in his address 
before the New Jersey State Horticultuial S *ci ty, spoke, as 
follows in reference to the culture of tbe stiawberry : 

"Statistics show that the value of strawb^'rfies so^d annually 
in our large cities amounts to many millions of dollars, but the 



JPo) the Southern States. 101 

priceless value in eiij'j'ment, in ^ood cheer jmd lieHlih to the 
millions who grow and pick and eat their own berries, is incal- 
culable. With tii*^ planting of ev« ry strawberry b^-d on a farm 
where there was none bef«ne, the coiner stone is laid for a happy 
home, for ev cry j)Liut we entrust to the soil bears in it the gvrms 
for happiness and health. Would we know where the strawber- 
ries grow, let us drive along the country road to yonder cozy cot- 
tag*^, uhcre th«- r-sv cheeUs and brigliteyes, the happy faces and 
cl I eerful expression of the children playing under the rose-covered 
veranda Ul\ p'amer than words can tell that the strawberry bed 
is not far away. 

But progress in strawberry and other fruit culture has accom- 
plislied more than invigorated health, increased enjoyment, and 
made home dearer to our children; it has sharpened observation, 
brightened thought and inspired the development and stability 
of the nob'esr traits of human nature. No plainer object-lesson 
was ever taught, no more impressive sermon preached than that 
wiiich nature instilled in every root, in every leaf, in every ex- 
panding bud and every fading flower which must wither that the 
more perfect fruit may spring into life. 

There is a class of people who do not believe in progress, who 
think the world had reached perfection when they were young, 
and that it has moved back war d since. But who could, fifty years 
ago, have immagined the wonderful progress of the present diy, 
and who can conceive what progr^ ssive ideas, progressive minds 
and progressive men will accomplish in another half century *? 
We may, at times, go too fast and make mi- steps, or we may put 
on too mu<h steam and burst a boiler, but what of that ? What 
do^s the brave soldier care if he must lose his life that his 
brothers may march to victory?" 

In concluding this somewhat lengthy article on the Culture of 
Strawberries in the Gulf Statesi, we claim the indulgence of 
friends who know, and we trust ai)preciate, ourenthu4a>:m intlie 
c«useof horticulture in all its branches. We believe that for- 
tune and happiness may be found in its excercise, and that more 
gold will be made in the culture of small fruits in the South than 
in the mines of New Mexico or California. 




102 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



FLOWER SEEDS. 



The following list of Flower seeds is not very lar^e, but it 
coutains all which is desirable and which will do well in the 
Southern climate. I import them from one of the most cel^-brated 
growers in Prussia, and they are of the best quality. There are 
very few or no flower seeds laised in this country, and Northern 
houses, which publish large lists and catalogues, get them from 
just the same sources as myself; but they, on an average, s<-ll 
much higher than I do. Some varieties which are biennial in 
Euroj)e or North, flower here th • first season; in fact, if they do 
not, tht^y generally do not flower at all, as they usually are 
destroyed by the continued long heat of suoimer. Some kinds 
grow quicker here and come to greater perfection than in a more 
Northern latitude. 

Flower seeds require a little more care in sowing than vege- 
table seeds. The ground should be well pulverized and light 
enough not to bake after a rain. Some of the more delicate and 
finer varieties are better sown in boxe^ or s^ed pans, where they 
can be better h^indled and protr cted from hard rains or cold 
weather ; the other kinds do not transplant well aiid are better 
sown at once where they are to remain, or a few seeds may be 
sown in small pots to facilitate transplanting iuto the garden with- 
out disturbiUj^ the plants, Avhen large enough. Some have very 
fine seeds which the mere j)ressiDg of the hand « r spade to the 
soil will cover; others may be covered oue fourth of an inch, 
accordiug to their size. Watering should be done carefully, and 
if not done with a syringe, a watering pot where the holes of the 
spout are very fine should be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, 
consideration should be taken of the height, so that the talhr 
varieties may be in the middle and the dwarf kinds on the edge 
of the bed. 

The seeds are put up at ten cents a package, one dollar per 
doz^n, except a few rare or costly kinds, where the price is noted. 
All flower seeds in packages are m iled free of postage to the 
purchaser. Where there is more than one color, 1 generally im- 
port them mixed, as I find that most of my cust 'mers do not wish 
to purchase six packages or more of one variety, in order to get 
all the colors. One p.(ckage of Asters, Zinnia, Phlox, Chinese 
Pink, German Stocks, Petunia, Portulaca and others, will always 
contain an equal mixture of the bt st colors. 



For the Southern States. 



103 



Althea Rosea. Hollyliock. This 
flower has been much improved of late 
years, and is very easily cultivated. 
Can be sown from October till April. 
Very hardy ; from four to six inches 
high. 

Alyssvim maritimiim. Sweet 
Alyssum. Yery free flowering plants 
about six inches high, with white flow- 
ers ; very fragrant. Sow from Octo- 
ber till April. 

Antirhinum majus. Snapdrag- 
on. (Jhoice mixed. Showy plant of 
various colors. About two feet high. 
Should be sown early, if perfect flow- 
ers are desired. Sow from October till 
March. 




Althea Rosea. 



Aster. Queen Margaret. German Quilled. Perfect double 
quilled flowers, of all shades, from white to dark purple and 
crimson. One and a half feet high. 




German Q allied Aster. 




Trufaut's Paeony Flowered Aster. 



Aster. Trufrtut's Paeony Flowered Perfection. Large double 
paeony shaped flowers, of fine mixed colors -, one of the best 
varieties. Two feet high 5 sow from December till March. 
Aster should be sown in a box or in pots and kept in a green- 
house, or near a window ; when large enough transplant into the 
border. Take a shovel of compost and mix with the ground 
before planting. Put three to four plants together and they wil^ 
show better. They can be cultivated in pots. 



104 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



m.yM 




Adonis aurnmnalis. 

Adonis aiitiimsialis. Flos Adonis 
or Flie saut's Eye. Showy crimson flowt r, 
of lonL^ dura' ion. Sow from November 
till April. One foot high. 

Amarantiivis caudatus. Love Lies 
Bleeding. Long red racemens with blood 
red flowers. Yery graceful j three feet 
high. 

Amaranthus tricolor. Three col- 
ored Amaranth. Very showv ; cultivated 
on account ot its leaves, which are green, 
yellow and red. 'I wo to ihree feet high. 

Amaranthus bicolor Two colored 
Amaranth. Crimen and green variega- 
ted foilagej good for edging. Two feet 
high. 

Amarantlius atropurpureus. Crimson Amaranth. Long 
droopiug spike of purple flowers. Four feet high. 




Amaranthus Tricolor. 





Amaranthns Salicifolius, Fountain Plant. 



Double Daisy. 



For the Southern States. 



105 



Aram an thus Salicifoliiis. Fountain Pl^nt. Rich colored 
foi age, very graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow from February 
till June. 




Aqullegia or Columbine. 



Balsamina Camelia Flowered. 



Aqnile^ia, Columbine. A showy and beautiful flower of 
different colors j two feet high. Sow from October tiJl March. 
Should be sown early if flowers are wished j if sown late will not 
bloom till next season. 



Balsamina hortensis. Lady Slipper. A well known 
flower of easy culture. Requires good ground to produce double 
flowers. 

Balsamina. Camelia flowered. Very double and beautiful 
colors. 

Balsamina camelia flora alba. Pure white flowers, 
used for boquets ; about two feet high. Sow from February till 
August. 

Bellis Perennis. Daisy. Finest double mixed variety ; 
four inches high. From October till January. 



106 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Cacalia coccinea. Celocia cristata. 

Cacaliacoccinea. Scarlet Tassei Flower. A profuse flow- 
ering plant, with tassel-sliaped flowers in cluster; one and a half 
feet. Sow from February till May. 

Calendula officlualis. Pot Marigold. A plant which, 
properly speaking, heioi'gs to the aromatic herbs, but sometimes 
cultivate for the flowers, which vary in difi'eent shades of 
yellow; one and a half feet. From January lil! April. 

Celocia cristata. Dwarf Cock's-comb. Well known class 
of flowers which are very ornament:)l, producing large ht-ads of 
crimson and yellow flowers: one to two leet high. Sow from 
February till Auo'ust. 




Cherianthns Cheri. "' ' ^ 

Cheriantlius Cheri, Wall Flower. This flower is highly 
esteemed in Sttme part- of Europe, but do^s not grow very per- 
fectly here, and seldom produces the large spikes of double 
flowers which aie very fragrant. Two feet high. November till 
March. 



For the /Southern States. 



107 



Campanula speciilimi. Bell-Flower, or Veuiis' lookiug- 



Fret* flowering plants of different colors, from white 
dark blue : oue foot hish. Sow from December till March. 



glass. 



to 





Centaurea cvauus. 



Centaurea saavolens. 



Centaurea cyanus. Bottle Pink. A liardy annual of easy 
culture, of various colors ; two feet bigb. 

Centaurea suavolens. Yellow, Sweet Sultan. December 
to April. 

Cineraria hybrida. A beautiful green-house plant. Seed 
should be sown in October or November, and they will flower in 
spring. Per packa^o 25 cents. 

Dianthus Barbatus. Sweet William. A well known plant 
which has been much improved of late years. Their beautiful 
colors make them very showy. Sould be sown early, otherwise 
they will not flower the first spring ; oue and a half feet high. 
October till April. 





Dianthus barbatus. Dianthus chenensis double. 

Dianthus Chinensis. Chinese Pink. A beautiful class 
of annuals of various co'ors, which flower very profusely in early 
spring and summer ; o e foot high. From October till April. 

Dianthus Hecldewig-gii. Japan Pink. This is the most 
showy of any of the annual pinks. The flowers are very large 



lOS Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual. 




Sow 



Dianthus caryophyllus. 



and of bri liant colors • one foot high, 
from October till Aprir. 

Dianthus pliimaris. Border Pink. A 
fragrant pink used for edging. The flowers 
are tinged, generally pink or white with a 
dark eye. Does not flower the first year ; 
two feet high. Sow from January till April. 

Dianthus caryophyllus. Carnation 
Pink. This is a well kno'wn and highly es- 
teemed class of flowers. They are double, 
of different colors, and veiy fragrant; can 
be sown either in fall or spring 5 should be 
shaded during midsummer and protected 
from hard rains ; three to four feet high. 
November till April. 





Dianthus Picotee. Early Dwarf Donbl" v.ainat-ion Pink. 

Dianthus Picotee. Finest hybrids. Stage flowers saved 
from a collection of over 500 named varieties ; per package 50c. 

Dianthus punaila. Early dwarf flowering Carnation Pink. 
If sown early this variety will flower the first season. They are 
quite dwarfish and flower very profusely. aS'ovember till April. 

Delphinium Imperial, fl. pi. Imperial flowering Lark- 
spur. Very handsome variety of symmetrical form. Mixed col- 
ors ; bright red, dark blue and red stripes ; IJ feet high. 

Delphinium ajacis, Eocket 
Larkspur. Mixed colors; very showy, 
two and a half feet. 

Delphinium Chinensis. 
Dwarf China Larkspur. Mixed col- 
ors; vi-ry pretty ; one foot high. Ko- 
vembpr till April. 

Note. — None of the above three 
vari<-ties transplant well, and are bet- 
ter sown at once where they are in- 
tended to remain. 

Dahlia. Large Flowering Dah- 
lia. Seed sown in the si>ring will 
flower by June. Very pretty colors 
are obtained from seed; the semi-dou- 
ble or single ones can be pulled up as 




Delphinium Chinensis. 



For the Southern States. 



109 



they bloom ; but those seeds which are saved from fine double 
vaneties «ill produce a good jjer ceniage of double flowers. 
February till June. 

Eschsciioltzia Califoriiica. California Poppy. A very 
free flowering plant, good for masses. 
Does not transplant well. One foot 
high. December till April. ^B^l^^^^ 





Gaillardia bicolor. Pnrple Globe Amaranth. 

Gaillardia bicolOFa Two colored Gaillardia. Very showy 
plants, which continue to flower for a long time. Flowers red, 
bordered with orange yellow. One and a half feet high. January 
till April. 




Geranium Zonale. 



110 



Richard Frotscher''s Almanao and Garden Manual 



Gillia. Mixed Gillia. Dwarf plants, which, flower freely of 
various colors. One foot. December till April. 

Gromplirena alba and purpurea. White and Crimson 
Batchelor Button or Globe Amaraiith. Well known variety of 
flowers; very early and free flowering ; continue to flower for a 
long time. Two feet high. Ij'rom February till August. 

Creraiiiuin Zoiiale. Zonale Geranium. Seed saved from 
large flowering varieties of different colors ; should be sown in 
seed pans, and when large esougM trai splnnted into pots, where 
they can be left, or transplanteil in spiing into the open ground. 




Ger^iiiuiii pelai'^oninin. 

G-eraiiium pelargonium. Large flowering Pelargonium. 
Spotted varieties, 25 cents per package. 

Geranium oderatissima. Apple-scented Geranium. 
Cultivated on account of its fragrant leaves ; 25 cents per pack- 
age. Both of these kinds are pot plants, and require shade 
during hot weather. Should be sown during fall and winter. 

Gypsophila panic ulata. Gypsophila. A graceful plant 
with white flowers, which can be used for bouquets. One foot 
high ; from December to April. 



1 
I 



For the Southern States. 



Ill 




Heliotr opium. Mixed varie- 
ties with (lark and light shaded flow- 
ers. A well known i)lant, esteemed 
for theTragTance of its flowers, which 
are produced dining the whole sum 
iner in great profusion. This plant 
is generally propagated by cuttings, 
but can also be raised from seed. 
Should be sown in a hot-bed if sown 
early. 

Heliclirysum moiistrosuin 
allbuin. White Everlasting Flow- 
er. Yery showy double flowers. One 
and a half feet high. 

Heiiotr< pinm. Heliclirysvim iiionstrosum 

rubriim. Red Everlasting Flower. Very Ornameuta]. One 
and a half feet high. December till April. Does not transiilaut 
well. 

Heliantlius fl. pi. Double Flowering Sunflower. A well 
known plant, with showy yellow flowers. Tbe double is often 
cultivated in the flower garden. The single varieties are culti- 
vated mostly for the seed. They are said to be anti-malarious. 
Four feet high. February till May. 

Iberis amara. White candytuft. A well known plant 
raised a good deal by aorists for bouquets. Can be sown at 
different times to have a succession of flowers. One foot high. 

Iberis umbelata rosea. Purple candytuft. One foot. 
October till A.pril. 

Liiiium gTaiidifloruin rubriim. Scarlet Flax. A very 
pretty plant for masses or borders, with bright scarlet flowers, 
dark in the centre. One foot. January till April. 




Lobelia erinus. 




Mathiola annua. 



Lobelia erinus. Lobelia. A very graceful plant, with 
white and blue flowers, well adapted for hanging baskets or 
border. Half foot. October till March. 



112 Richard FrotscJier^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Lychnis clialcedonica. Lycliiiis. 
i?i<e plants with sea ler, white nr^d rose 
flowers. Two feet. December till April. 
LiUpiniis. Ln])inus. Plants with 
spikes of flowers of vaiious colo s. Should 
be so\^Ti soon. Does not transplant well. 
Two feet. December till Maich. 

Mathiola annua. Ten Weeks 
Stocks. This is one of the finest annuals 
in cultivation. Large flowt-is of all col- 
ors, from white to dark blue or crimson. 
Should be sown in pots or pans, j»nd 
when large enough transplanted into rich 
soil. One and a quarter feet. October 
till March. 
Mesembryanthemnm crystalli- 
nnni. Ice plant. I^eat plant with icy looking fo iage. It is of 
spreading habit. Good for baskets or beds. One loot. Febru- 
ary til! April. 

Mimiilus tigrinns. Monkey flower. Sbowy flowers of 
yellow at'd brown. Should be sown in a shady place. Does not 
transplant well. Half foot. December till March. 




Veiiiji.^ Ci^ alui uunica. 



^ 



\ 








Ice Plant. Double Matricaria. 

Matricaria capensis. Double Matricaria. "White double 
flowers, resembling 'he Daisy, bur smaller, are fine for bouquets; 
blooms very u( arly the whole summer. Two feet. December till 
March. 

Mimosa pndica. Sensitive Plant. A curious and inter- 
esting plant which folds up its leaves when touched. Oue foot. 
February till Jun-. 

Mirabilis Jalapa. Marvel of Peru. A well known plunt 
of ea^v culture; ])r()duc'ng flowers of various colors. It forms a 
root which can be preserved irom one year to aboiher. February 
till June. Three fee^ 

Myosotis paliistris. Forget me-not. A fine little plant 
with\small, blue, starlike flowers, should have a moist, sha-ly 
situati'-n Does I'Ot succeed so we'l here as in Europe, of which 
it is a native. Half foot high. December till March. 



For the Southern States. 



113 





"^.•^ 



Blue Grove Love. Petunia hybrida. 

Nenioliilia Insig^nis. Blue Grove Love. Plants of easy 
cultu'e, very pretty and profuse bloomers. Bright blue, with 
white centre. One foot high. 




Nia:e]la daraascera. 

Nemopliila malculata. 

Large white flowers si dotted 
with violet. One foot high. 
December till Apiil. 

Nij^ella damarsena. 

Love in a Mis r. I 'lants of easy 
culture, with light blue flowers. 
Does not transplant well. One 
foot high. December till April. 

Nieremberg^ia gracilis. 

M^-rembergia. Nice p'ants 
witl) dt-licate foliage, and white 
flowers tinted with dlac. On^ 
foot high. Novemb- rtill April. 

(Enothera Lamarckia- 

na. Evening Primrose J -howy, 
large yellow flowers. Decem- 
ber till April. 

8 



Two feet high. 




PapavHi- lanuncnluH 11 >wered. 



114 Bichard FroUcherh Almanac and Garden Manual 



Papaver Somniferum. Double flowering Poppy. Of 
diffeient colors ; very showy. 

Papaver raniinculus flowered. Double fringed flowers, 
very showy. Canuot be transplanted. Two feet high. October 
till March. 

Petunia hybrida. Petunia. Splendid mixed, hybrid va- 
rieties. A very decorative plant of various colors, well known 
to almost every lover of flowers. Plants are of spreading babit, 
about one foot high. January till May. 




Petnnia Hybrida donble. 



^ '.^iMlM^\ 





PMox UrnniTnondii grandiflor 



For the Southern States. 



115 



Petunia flora pleiio. Large double floAveriiig varieties. 
They are hybiidized Avitli the finest- strains, and will give from 20 
to 25 per cent, of double flowers. Very handsome ; 25 cents per 
package. January till March. 

Phlox Drummon- 
dii. Drummond's Phlox. 
One of the best and most 
popular annuals in culti- 
vation. Their various col- 
ors and length of floAver- 
ing, with easy culture, 
make them favorites with 
every one. All fine color s 
mixed. One foot high. 
December till April. 

Phlox Driiinnion- 
€lii grancliflora. This 
is an impi ovement on the 
above ; flowers are larger 
with white centre, differ- ^ 
ent colors. Very beauti- " 
ful. One foot high. De- 
cember till April. 

Portulaca. A small 
plant ot great beauty, and 

of the easiest culture. Does Double Portulaca. 

best in a Avell exposed situation, where it has plenty of sun. The 
flowers are of various colors, from white to bright scarlet and 
crimson. The plant is good for edging vases or pots. Or where 
large plants are kept in tubs, the surface can be filled with this 
neat little genus of plants. Half foot high. February till 
August. 

Portulaca graiidiflora fl. pL Double Portulaca. The 
same variety ol colors with semi-double and double flowers. Half 
foot high. February till August. 






Primula veris. Scabiosanana. 

Primula veris. Polyanthus. An herbaceous plant of va- 
rious colors, highly esteemed in Europe. Half foot high. De- 
cember till April. 



116 



Richard Frotsclierh Almanac and Garden Manual 




Primnla chinensis. Chinese 
Primrose. A grie- n-hous*- plant, which 
flowers profusely ai d continues to 
bloom for a loMg time; sh. u d be sown 
early to insure the plant flower. nij 
well. Difl'eient colors; mixed per 
packao^e 25 cents. Ont-. and a half 
feet high. Ocfober till F. bruary. 

Reseda otlerata Sweet Mign- 
onette. A fragrant [dunt and a favor- 
ite with everybody. One foor hi^h. 

Rt^seda graiidiflora. Similar to 
the above plant and flower, spikes 
larger. Fiiteeu inches. December 
till April. 

Scabiosa nana. Dwarf Mourn- 
ing Bride. Plants of double flowers of various colois. One foot 
high. December till April. 

Saponaria calabrica. Soapwort. A very free flowering 
annual, of easy culture, resembling somewhat in leaves the Sweet 
Wil Um. One and a half feet high. December till April. 

Salvia coccinea splendens. Scarlet Salvia or Eed 
Floweiing Sage. A pot or green-house pbmt, but \\hi. h can be 
grown as an annual, as it flowers freely from seed the first year. 
Two to three feet hijj^h. February till April. 

Silene Arineria. Lobei's Catrhfly. A free blooming 
plant Oi easy culture; flowers almost anywhere. Eed and white. 
One and a half feet high. 






Reseda oderata. 






^■ 



>lr 








..o^ -- 



Tagetes Erecta. Tajs:etes Patula. 

Ta|. etes erecta. African or Tall-growing Mnrigold. Very 
showy annuals for borders, with bright yellow flowers growing 
upright. One and a half feet high. 

Tag*f tes patnla, French or Dwarf Marigold. A very 
compact dwarf growing variety, covered with yellow and brown 
flowers One and a half feet high. January till April. 

Verbena liybrida. Hybridized Yerbena, A well known 
and favorite floVer for borders. Their long flowering and great 
diversity of color make them valuable for every garden, however 



Fo'i the Southern States. 



117 



small. All colors mixed; 
one and a hal f feet high. 
January till Apiil. 

Verbena Striped 
lUxliaii, Th se are 
beriutiiul stiiped kinds 
of all colors with large 

ey. s. 

Verbena Niveni. 

White Verbena. Pure 
white Verbena of more 
or less tragrauc *. One 
and a l<alf feet high. 
Jitnuary till April. 

Vinca rosea and 
alba, lied and White 
Periwinkle. Plants of 
s''iniiig foliaLie, with 
Avhite and dark rose col- 
ore li flowers, which are 
pr dnced during the 
whole summer and mu- 
tutiu 
February till April 

Viola odorata. 

Sweet Violi^t. Well 
kn >wn ed^iiig plant, 
which genera My is jtro- 
pagritt^d by dividing the 
plants; but ran also l>e 
raised fiom seed. Halt* 
foot high. Sow from 
January till March. 






Two feet high. 




Choicsst Large English Pansy. 




Hybridized Verbena. 



Striped Italian Verbena. 



118 



Richard Frotschefs Almanac and Garden Manual 



Viola tricolor maxima. Large flowering choicest Pansy. 
This is one of the fine-t little plants in cultivation, for pots or 
the open ground. They aie of endless colors and markings. 
When p anted in the garden, they will sIimw better if x^lanted in 
masses, and a little elevated above the level of the garden. 
Half foot high. October till March. 




R-ou-yer '^^an«»u-ieab 



Double Zinnia. 

Zinnia eleg*ans fl. pi. Double Zinnia. Plants of very 
easy culture, flowering- very profusely throu<ih the whole summer 
and fall; producing double flowers of all col^^rs, almost as large 
as the flower of a dahlia. Three feet high. February till 
August. 



For the Southern States. 



119 



CLIMBING PLANTS. 



Beniiicasa cerifera. Wax Gourd. A strong growing 
vine with long shaped dark crimson frnit, which looks very 
ornamental. It is used for preserves. 





Balloon Vine. Climbing Cobsea. 

CardiospermuTn. Balloon Vine. A quick growing-climber, 
the seeds of which are in a pod shapedjike a miniature b lUoon, 
therefore the name. 

Cobsea Scadens. Climbing Oobaea. Large purple bell 
shaped flowers. Should be sown in a hot-bed, and not kept too 
moist. Place the seed edgewise in the ground. Twenty feet 
high. January till April. 





Morning Glory. 



Mixed Thunbergia. 



120 



Bicliard Froisclier's Almanac and Garden 2Ia7uial 



ConTolTiilus major. ^^Jornino: Glory. Well kno^n vlrie 
witb various lian(i>oniely coloied flowers uf easy cultuie. Grow 
almost ai ywhere. Ten IVtt high. PebM-ary till July. 

Curciirbita. Ornamental Gourd. ]\iixed t, lit ties of Or- 
nsmei-tal Gourds of difieient shapes and sizes. February till 
3Iay. 

Sweet Gourd. A stroncr 
the youi g fruits are used like Squash. 
February lill April. 

Doliclios Lablab. Hyacinth 
Bean. Free gowi-g p'aiit. with 
puij'le and white flowers. March till 
April. 

IX30iii8pa Qnamoclit rosea. 
Pted Cv] ress Vine. Veiv beautiful. 



Curcnrbita lagenaria cUilcis. 

crowing vine of v. hich 






delicatefoliage. of rapid growth, with ."^nX^ 
sc a^ler flowers. .m,^^- 

Ipoiiifea Quainoclit alba. 
White Cypress Vine. The s me as 
the foregoiDg kmd. exc* pt white fluw- 
er-. February till August. 

Ipom?ea Bot.a Xox. L^rge 
Fioweriiig Eveni g Gh^ry. A vine 
of raijid growth, with beautiful blue 
and white flowers, which ojien in the 






^^m^sm 



^ ^ 



Hvacinth Bean. 
February till June. 
Swtet Peas. Benutiful flowers of 
Good for cut floweis. Six feet high. 



evening. Twenty feet Idgh 
Lathyrus odoratiis. 

all colors, veiy showy 
Decemlier till .-^pril. 

3Iaiirandia Barclayana. Mixed Maurandia. A slerder 
growing vinn of raj'id gTOwrh. Eose. pnrple aud white colors 
mixed. Ten feet h gh. Febiuaiy till April. 

31an3ordica Balsamiua. ' Ba snm Apple. A cbmbing 
plant of very rai id growth, i^rodnci^g Cucumbei -like fruits, with 
warts on them. They are belie \ ed to contain some iLie<!icinal vr- 
tues. They are ])ut m jars wi h alcohol, and are used as a dress- 
ing f'T cuts, bruises, etc. 

Luffa acutaiigiila. Dish Eag Tine. A very rapid grow- 
ing vii e or th- Guard family. When the fruit is dry, the flbrons 
substance, which covtis the seeds, can be used as a rag. Febru- 
ary tih A]iril. 

Secliiiiin edule. Vegetable Pear or :\Iirliton. A rapid 
growir g vine with grape like leaves, ot which the fririt is eaten; 
there are two varieties. -^Inte and gieen. It has only one seed, 
and the whole fruit has to be planted. 

TropiT-oiiim majiis. >'asttirtium. Trailing plants with 
elegant flow- rs or dilieiei.t shades, mostly yellow and crimson, 
wt ieh are produced in great abundance. Four feet high. F~eb< 
ruaiy till April. 

Tlmiibergia. Mixed Thunbergia. Very oinamental ^ines, 
with yellow bell shaped flowers, with dark eye. Six teet high. 
Februarv tiil Mav. 



For the Southern States. 



121 



BULBOUS ROOTS. 




Anera 



Anemones. Double flower- 
ing-. Planted and treated tLe same 
as the R nmi cuius. Tliey are of 
gieat varie'i' s in color. 

Double Dutch $i).50 per dozen. 
" French l.dO '^ 

Dahlias. Fine double namt^d 
varieties. Plants so well known 
for their brilliai)cy, diversity of 
colors and profuse flowering quali- 
ties, that they rr quire no recom- 
mendation. They <aii be planted 
from February till May ; they 
thrive best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be ii« d up to stakes, which 
ought to be driven info tlie ground 
before or when ])lanting them. To 
have them flower Sate in tlie season 
they should be planted late in the 
spring, and the flower buds nipped 
ofl' when they appeai- ; treated in 
this way, Ihey will produce perfect 
flowers during fail. Undivided 
roots $4.00 per dozen. 




Dahlias. 



122 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Gladiolus. Hybrid 
Gladiolus. One of the best 
summer floweriug bulbs ', 
they have been greatly im- 
pr.'ved of late years, and 
almost every color has been 
producer! ; is tinged and 
blotched in all !?hadesfrom 
delicate rose to dark ver- 
milliou. W lieu planted at 
intervals during spring, 
they will flower at differ- 
ent times,' but those that 
are planted earliest i»ro- 
duce the finest^ flowers. 
The roots should be taken 
up in the fall. 

Hybrids mixed, first 



choice, 10c. 



each; 75c. per 




dozen. 

Hybrids, white ground, 
1st choice, lOc. each, |1 00 
per dozen. 

Very fine named varie- 
ties, 25e. each. 

(xloxinias. These are 
really bulbous green-house 
plants, but they can be cul- 
tivated in pots and kept in a 
shidy place in the garden, or 
window. They are v»-ry beau- 
tiful, color fiom white to dark 
violet and crimson. The leaves 
are velvety, and on some va- 
rities very large. They should 
be planted early in spring ; re- 
quire sandy gi ound and a good 
deal of moisture during flow- 
ering time. French Hybrids 
strong bulbs, $3 00 per dozen. 

Hyacinths. (Dutch 
Double and single. The Hya- 
cinth is a beatiful flowering 
bulb, well suited for open Gloxinias, 

ground or pot culture. They should be planted from October 
till February. If planted in pots it is well to keep in a cool, 
rather dark place, till they are well started, when they can be 
placed in the full light and sun. Double and single, 15 cen^s 
ca(;h ; $1 50 per dozen. 

Ldlinm trigrinum. Tiger Lily. A well known variety, 
very showy and of easy culture ; 10 cents each. 



For the Southern States. 



123 



Liliuni trigrinnm fl pi. This is a new variety ; it is per- 
fectly double, aud the petals are imbricated almost as regularly 
as a camelia flower. Novel aud fine, 15 cents eacb. 




f 



Lilium Tigrinum fl. pi. 

JAPAN LILIES. 

Lilium auratum. Golden 
Baud Lily; This i s a very hand- 
some lily ', the flowers are large 
and white, each petal having a 
yellow strii)e. It is of easy cul- 
ture. A L)amy, dry soil suits 
it best, and planted one iuch 
deep. 

The past season I had occa- 
sion to s^e several of this noble 
lily in bloom, and it is really 
fine ; half adozer» flowers open- 
ing at the same time, and they 
measure from six to nineiuches 
across ; it is very fragrant. I 
expect some fine bulbs, same as 
Ihad last year, imported direct 
from their native country. 

Flowering bulbs 50c. each. 

Lilium laucifolium al- 
bum. Pure white Japan Lil}^ 
40 cents each. 

Lilium lancifolium rubrum. White and red spotted, 
15 cents each. 

Lilium lancifolium roseum. Rose spotted, 15c. each. 

These Japan Lilies are very beautiful and fragrant. Should 
be planted from October till January. Perfectly suited to this 
climate. 




124 Richard Frotschefs Almanac and Garden Manual 











LUium lancifolinm rubrum. Tuberoses, double flowering. 

Pseonia sinensis. Chinese or herbaceous Pseonia. Herba- 
ceous plants of different colors and great beauty ; tliev should be 
plarited duiing' tall in a shady situation, as it flowers early in 
spring. If planted too late it will not floAver perfectly ; 40c. each. 





Eanunculns. Scilla peruviana. 

Ranunculus. Double Flowering. The roots can be 
planted during fall and winter, either in the open grouud or in 
pots. The Frerch varieties are more robust Thau the Persian, and 
the flowers are larger. The ground should be rather dry, and if 
plante i m the open ground, it wiil be well to have the spot a 
little higher than the bed or border. 

Persian Eanuuculas 25 cents per dozen. 

French " 40 '' '' 

Scilla peruviana. These are green-house bulbs at the 
iS"orth, but here they are hardy, and no Avell in the open ground. 
There are two varieties — the blue and the white. They throw up 
a shoot, on the end of which the flowers appear, forming a truss'. 
Plant from October till January. 30 cents each. 

Tulii>s. Double anri single Tulips thrive better in a more 
Northern latitude than this, but some years they flower well here, 
and as they are cheap a few flowering bulbs will pay the small 



For the Southern States. 



125 



amount they cost. They should not be planted later than Decem- 
ber and placed very shallow in the ground; not more than one- 
tliird of I he bulb should be covered. When near flowering they 
require a good deal of moisture. Single and double 50 cents per 
dozen. 

Tuberoses. Double Flowering. They are ornamental for 
the garden, and very valuable for making bouquets, on account 
of their pure white color and great fragrance. Plant during the 
spring months. Strong bulbs 10 cents eacb, 75 cents per dozen. 



BOUQUET PAPEEg. 



I keep a large and varied stock of bouquet pai)erF, besides the 
different kinds enumerated below. I also have finer qualities, 
satin, velvet and tarleton, ranging from $1.50 to $4.50 each; also, 
some new styles called Parisian, finished in the same exquisiie style 
as the above. They are very appropriate for bridal bouquets. 

PASTED CARTONS. 



No. 

4 

523 
1716 

531 
18-23 

1688 
1606 
1648 
1662 

518 
1610 
1682 
1685 
10 
1609 
1690 
1918 

552 
1677 



Inches in 
diameter. 

4i 
4f 
5 

5^ 
5i 
7 

7i 
7i 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 

9i 
10 
10 
lOi 
10^ 
11 




Measure includes tbe Lace. 



perdoz. 

$0 15 
15 
20 
15 
15 
25 
30 
30 
35 
35 
35 
40 
40 
40 
50 
50 
50 
60 
60 



51 50 

1 75 

2 00 
1 75 

1 75 

2 75 

3 00 
3 25 
3 50 
3 50 



No. 

1622 
1671 
1919 

533 
12 
1789 
1604 
1760 
1712 
1920 

501 
1693 
1922 

176 

549 
1923 

525 
18 

507 



Inches in 
diameter. 

Hi 

12 
12 

12 

I2i 

13 

13 

13i 

13i 

14 

15 

15 

15 

16 

16 

18 

18 

20 



per doz. 

f 60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
50 
60 
70 
90 
70 

90 

1 20 
1 00 

80 

1 50 
1 40 
1 50 
1 50 



$6 75 
6 75 
6 



10 00 
7 50 

10 00 
13 50 

11 00 
9 00 

15 00 

12 00 
15 00 
17 00 



126 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



ITALIANS, WITH TWELVE SCALLOPS. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 








Inches in 






Ko, 




eflch. 


Per do7 


34 


3f 


$0 10 


|0 75 


24 


6 


10 


90 


119 


6i 


15 


1 25 


8 


7 


10 


1 00 



Inches in 

Xo. dlaineter. each per dor 

31 7i 80 15 SI 50 

83 7i 20 1 60 

99 8i 20 1 75 



^ 
«"■■■ 



ITALIANS, WITH TWENTY-FOUR SCALLOPS. 

Measure exclngive of Lace. 

-^m 



:^^ 



i_,t > h^ 



v« 




^1¥^P^ 





Inches in 








Inches in 






No. 


diameter. 


each. 


Per doz 


•Xo. 


diameter. 


each 


per do« 


53 


6 


$0 10 


|1 00 


73 


9 


$0 25 


$2 25 


54 


7^ 


15 


1 40 


15 


12 


25 


2 50 


7G 


^i 


20 


1 80 











ITALIANS, WITH GILT OR SILVER LACE, TWELVE SCALLOPS^ 
Measure exclusive of Lace. 





Inches in 


Ko. 


diameter. 


33 


6 gilt., 25c. each. 


44 


fi^ gilt and silver, 25c. each 


39 


7 gilt, .30c. each. 



No. 

33 
13 
15 



Inches in 
diarae er. 

8 
9 



gilt, 50c. each. 
gilt, 50c. each, 
silver, 50c. each. 



For the Southern States. 



127 



THE NEW YORK-SEED DRILL. 

MATTHEWS PATENT. 




I take pleasure in calling your attention to a perfect Seed Drill. 
This Drill was invented and perfected by the father of the seed- 
drill business — Mr. E. G. Matthews. It has been l)is aim for years 
to make a j^erfect drill and do away with the objections found in 
all others, and in the New York he has accomplished it. Its ad- 
vantages over other drills are as follows : 

1. Marker -bar under the frame, held by clamps, easy to ad- 
just to any width by simply loosening thumlD nuts. 

2. Adjustable plow, which opens a wide furrow, and can be 
set to sow at anj depth. 

3. Open seed conductor to show seed drox)ping. 

4. Bars in seed conductor, for scattering seed in wide furrow, 
prevent disturbing strong plants when thinning out — an im- 
portant feature. 

5. Eidged roller. 

6. Dial plate in full sight of operator, and made of patent 
combination white metal, which prevents rust. 

7. Dial plate set on fulcrum, and hence holds close up, pre- 
venting seed from spilling. 

8. It has a large seed-box with hinged cover. 

9. Machine will stand up alone when not in use, not liable to 
tip over. 

It is the SIMPLEST, MOST COMPACT and EASIEST 
DRILL TO HANDLE, being only 32 inches long. 

It covers the seed better and runs very easy. 
Packed in crates for shipping. Weight about 45 pounds. 
Price $12 00. 



128 



Bichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



MATTHEWS' HAND CULTIVATOR, 

The Matthews Haisd Cul- 
tivator is one of tlie best im- 
plements in use lor weeding be- 
tween row crops, and for flat 
cultivation generally, and is an 
indispensable companion to the 
seed drill. 

It is t'noronghly constrm'ted Price $6 50 Boxed, 

through OUT,, very durable; easy to operate. A l^oycandoas mucK 
S, as . . Jn .itk noes. It spreads from 6 to 14 inches, and 
w I cut all the ground covered, even when spread to its greatest 
r^ tenf Its teeth are of a new and improved pattern, and 
tZ^^^^^ and mellow the SOU. The depth of cult^ 
la r^may be accurately gauged by raising or lowering the 
wheefs, whL is quickly done by the use of a thumb screw. 





Loop Fastener, swing socket Scythe Snath 




Ladies' Set, Floral Tools. No. 5. 



For the Southern States. 



129 



o-^^ieiDEisr i3^:E=XjDE]i^EiNrTS. 




Boys' Favorite Set. 



Weeding Hoe and Rake Combined. 




Cast Steel Garden Trowel. 




Strawberry Fork. 




Spading Fork, D Handle. 
9 



Excelsior Weeding Hook. 



130 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 





Slide Pruning Shear. 



Hcr!ge Shear. 



Saynor's Pruning Knife, No. 194. 




Saynor's Prauiug Knife, No. 192 



O. G, Hand Pruning Shear. 



Weiss' Hand Pruning Shear. 



Dutch, or Suuifle Hoe. 



For the Southern States. 131 



PRICE LIST OF GARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 



Improved American Garden Syringes. 

No. A (Small) $3 50 

No. 2— Conservatory, with two extra roses 5 00 

No- 2— Green House, " " " 6 00 

No. 5— " " " " 7 50 

No. 8— " " " •* 9 00 

HOES. 

W. A. Lyndon's Louisiana, No. 1 1 15 

" " No. 2.- 120 

No.3 125 

Lane's Planters' (with handle) No. 90 

" " " No. 1 ...0 95 

'* *• " No-2 100 

Oval Eye Planters' polished, 6 inches 60 

" " " «' 8 " 75 

King, Briggs & Co.'s Scovill's Pattern No. 3 65 

•' " " No. 2 55 

D. <fc H. Scovill's Imp. Planters', 8 inches I 75 

Lane's Crescent, No. 1 :. 65 

" No.2 60 

ChanQpion, with handle --. 75 

S. S. Tnttle'8 Socket, with handle 75 

T wo Pronged Weeding, with handle 50 

Magic Hoe 75 

RAKES. 

Malleable Iron, 9 teeth, (Ladies') - 50 

" " 11 " 60 

<• '• 13 " 1 75 

Steel. " 10 " 65 

" 12 " 80 

" •• 14 " 90 

« " 16 " 100 

SPADES. 

Ames' Long Handled 1 25 

Rowlands' " 90 

Naylor'8 " 75 

Ames' Short Handled 1 50 

Porter's " 125 

Rowland's " 100 

SHOVELS. 

Rowland's Long Handled 90 

Ames'Short " 140 

SCYTHE SNATHS. 

Handles for French Scythe Blades 1 00 

No. 1, R )uud Socket slip ring 75 

No. 0, Plate Heel, slip ring 80 

No. 00, Loop Fastener - 90 



132 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



SICKLES. 

English (welded), No. 2 40 

'^ No. 3 ,0 45 

" (riveted back), No. 1 75 

" " No.2 60 

" " No.3.... 85 

French 40c and 45 

SHEARS. 

Hegde Shears, 10 inches 2 50 

$2 00 and 2 25 

2 00 

00 
50 



Pruning 



7 " 

:So. 1, (Weiss) 2 

No. 2, *« 1 

No.3, " 175 

" " 8 inches, (French) 150 

9 " " 1 75 

O.G 150 

Slide Pruning Shear, large, 4 00 

** " '' small 3 00 

KNIVES. 

Union Knife Co.'s Budding, (wooden handle) 75 

Geo. Wostenholmes " (white bone iiandle). ..No. 1, $1 00; No 2, 1 25 

H. & J. W. King's Pruning irom 60c to 1 25 

Saynor & Cook's " - from $1 50 to 1 75 

Aaron Burkinshaw's Pruning and Budding from 40c to 80 

FORKS. 

Spading, long handled 1 25 

" D Handle (strapped) 125 

Manure, Long Handled, 4 tine , 90 

" Short " 4 " 50 



POTATO HOOKS. 



Long Handled, 6 tine. 

4 " . 



75 
65 



SCYTHES. 



French, First Quality (polished), 22 inches 1 90 



Second Quality, (blue), 



Common, 



24 
26 
28 
22 
24 
26 
28 
22 
24 
26 



Auburn" Bramble. 



1 00 
1 15 
1 25 
80 

90 

1 00 
1 10 
75 
85 

95 

1 00 
American Grass -- 1 00 

FLORAL TOOLS. 

The Boy's Favorite— Hoe, Spade and Rake 2 50 

LADIES' SETS. 

No. 5 — 4 pieces, Hoe, Eake, Spade and Fork ,..-.... 1 25 

No. 68— 3 " Hoe and Rake combined. Fork and Spade.. 175 

No. 67—3 " " " " 1 50 

No, 3—4 " Best English, extra finish 3 00 

No. 4—4 " " " 4 00 



Fo"^ the Southern States. 133 



TREE PRUNERS. 

Length of Pole 8 feet, weight 3^ pounds 2 50 

^' " 10 " " ii " 2 50 

Extra Knives each 30 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pruning Saws « 50c and 1 00 

Excelsior Weeding Hooks 25 

Transplanting Shovels 25c and 35 

" Trowels, (American) 6 inch, 15c; 7 inch, 20 

" " (English) • 50c and 75 

" Forks..... No. 1.20c; No. 2, 25 

Scotch Whetstones 25 

Common " 20 

French " .„. 15 

Lathing Hatchets 70c and 75 

N«»ttingham Bill Hooks 150 

Wooden Hay Kakes • 25 

Hoe Handles • 20c and 25 

WATERING POTS. 

6 Quarts, Japanned 50 

8 " " 65 

10 " " 75 

12 " " 100 

16 " " 140 

Extra Heavy, (hand made) $1 50, 1 75 and 2 25 

FLOWER POTS. 

3 inch .- per dozen 40 

4 " " 60 

5 " *• 75 

€ " " 90 

7 " ..-- " 120 

8 " " 150 

9 '' " 175 

10 " " 2 25 

12 •' " 3 75 

SAUCERS. 

5 inch per dozen 60 

6 " - " 60 

7 " " 80 

8 " " 100 

9 " " 120 

10 " " 150 



134 Richard Frotschefs Almanac and Garden Manual 

DHOURO, OR EGYPTIAN CORN. 

{Sorghum Vulgar e.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 

This cereal is ordinarily supposed to be a native of Asia, but 
it is cultivHted largely as well in Africa, some portions of the West 
Indies and South America. In the United States it was formerly 
planted quite extensively in tlie Southern States 5 but at present, 
many more times as much of it is grown in Kansas as in all the 
rest of this country. Its name vari- s almost with the locality in 
which it is' raised ; and the varieties — the results of sports or 
crossings — are almost ^^s numerous as its designations. In Kan- 
sas, which must be legarded as the leading locality of its present 
])roduction in this country, two varieties mainly are cultivated, 
the Eed and the White. Both of these ar.^ good, equally so, per- 
haps, unless as to productiveness, for it is geuer-illy believed that 
tlie Ee(^ produces much more grain than tbe White. Also it is 
said that the Red will ripen seed far' her North than the ^Vh^te ; 
but in the Southern States this is of no consideration, in as much 
as hoth, in one season, have produced seed from which a second 
seed-bearing crop has been produced without difficulty. Nor does 
it ai)iiear, as far as acturil experiment has g"ne, that the Utd is 
much, if any, more productive than the White in the ttouihtrn 
beb, at least near the Gulf coast. 

Innutrition the grain is but liitle behind wheat; while its 
yie'd per acre is greaterthan any cereal in the known world. From 
lUO to 150 b shels of grain on rich lands is but anordina-y yie d 5 
and it is claimed that in Kansas this year near 200 bashe s per 
act e have been produced. This is quite pos-^ible of l)elief to those 
who saw the ma^niticent panicles on exhii ition at Atlanta, at 'he 
International C«>tton Exposition this auiumn. In certa n portions 
of Kansas, where prolonged droughts are usual, its cultivation 
has recently been successfully introduced as a substitute for 
wheat; for drought seems to have but liit'e intiueuce t » retard its 
growth. Indeed, when planted side by ^ide with Indian C(»rn, the 
latter from drought has been curled and twisteil almost beyond 
hope, the former exhibited no external effects of the dr}^ season. 

Of course the \ield varies with the soil on which it grows, 
the richer the soil the greater the :^ieli ; but it will grow well on 
soil however p or; in this respect taking precedence even of the 
cow pea. It grows from six to twelve feet high, and maj' be le- 
peateiily cut for green soiliuir. For. not only as a cereal, making 
a meal far better ihan thar of Indian Corn, but also as a forage 
pi nt tli^^ Dhouro is invaluable. Not onls does it spring up from 
the stubble, wnen cut at from 3 to 5 feet iiigh, but also after ma- 
turing the seed-heads it sends forth shoots or suckers from lower 
joints, which in turn x)ruduce smal er heads. It is rich in saccha- 
rine matter aiid affbids a good, tiiough tou^^h hay or fodder when 
cured. Cut when very younjj: and suecuUn; it is not easy to cure 
unless the weather be fine; but, as it continues to grow till frost, 
making new suckers from the joints all the lime, it may be allowed 



For the Southern States. 



135 



to matu'^e seed, be cut and then easily cured, forming? a fair fod- 
der with 1 icb gTain combined. Cut in this way the stalks not only 
cure more, easily, but keep far better than any other of tlie family 
of pithy jT^rasses. It will not hecome sour like Indian Corn. The 
most economical ami practical way of curing it, is, as it will thus 
ai)pear, to cut and house stalks and seed all tOi.'e'her when the 
larger quantity of seeds has ripened. All kinds of stock are fond 
of both the fodder and grain, and cattle especially eat it: with 
great ayidity. 

It is cultivated either by sowing broadcast for bay or to be 
cut for gi een soiling, or in drills about three f'-et apart. If sown 
broadcast, on.e busht-l of see I to the acre, harrowed in, is snfti.- 
cient. The yield of green stuff and eured hay is simply enormous ; 
its growth is rapid and continuous till frost ; so that there is no 
fear of losing it from becoming over-ripe. It sowed in drills one 
peck of seed per acre is amp'e. Of course, except on vcy rich 
land, the seed-heads will be larger and finer if not sown too thick- 
ly. For grain the st/ilks should not be nearer than 12 inches in 
the drill, but if to be cut repeatedly till frost for g^een soiling, it is 
be'tertosow quite thickly in the ddlls. An inch or an inch and a- 
half is the proper dei'tb for covering the seed. Of course the 
ground should be well plought d and harrowed before sowing- 
When the plants are well up thny should be thinned to the proper 
distance in the drills by choi)ping aeioss the rows. One or two 
good ploujihings is all the cultivation needed. Once well started 
no feat need be enters ained that weeds or grass can make head- 
way — tbey will be spt edily choked out by the dense growth of 
foliage. So rapid is its growth that the seed crop can soon be 
harvested and, as before stated, a new crop from the seed begrt)wn 
the same year. It can be sown at any time in the far Soutn from 
March to August ; it is not injured by a slight frost when young. 
The leaves, if stripped from the stalks, make as good fodder as 
those of Indian Com, although they are not so large. If both 
fodder and grain are gathered, and stock turned in to feed on the 
stalks, and the remnants then ploughed in, it will be found that 
the 1 .nds will lose very little by the operation. It is astonishing 
how quickly cattle will grow fat on these bare, succulent stalks. 

The green fodder, by actual analysis, as compared with Bed 
Glover in blossom, is shown to be richer both in heating properties 
and fat forming principles than the clover, but not so lich in flesh 
producers. Tne following table will show their comparative val- 
ues: — 







SO 

p ^ 

•2. 


> 
^ 


: B 

'■ 


I- 

i? 


. CD 

: J3j 


1 


Uhrouro 


77.3 

78.0 


21.4 
20.3 


l.i 
1.7 


2.9 
3.7 


11.9 

8.6 


0.7 

8.0 


1.4 


Btd Clover in blossom. 


0.8 



As Dbouro will yield more grain, fodder and stalks on a 
greater vaiiety of lands, with less labor, iu one season, and will 
leave more rough litter to be turned into the soil than any other 



k 



136 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 

cereal, besides being excellent food for both man and beatst, it 
certainly deserves to be considered one of the .most valuable 
cereals, and is worthy of the attention of every farmer in the 
South. Even as feed for chickens nothing is its eqiiaL 

During the last two or three years a variety, which experi- 
ence shows to be radically different from those above described, 
has been sent out by the euterprising proprietors of the Rural 
Neiv Yorker. The seed-heads of this variety, popularly known as 
the '^ Rural Branching Sorghum," are borne upright, in a vertical 
position, while the heads of the others are mainly drooping, bend- 
ing downwards in a graceful curve. Also, the seeds of the Branch- 
ing variety are somewhat smaller and more spherical than in the 
other kinds. In addition the seed mature much more slowly, but 
in ample time to be harvested in the h^wer Gulf States before frost. 
The stalk giowth of the '' Kural Branching" variety is far larger 
than that of the others, being in fact as large as that of large 
Southern Corn 5 whde it obtains a hf ight of from 15 to 16 feet on 
very ordinary piiiey-woods lands. The leaf also is as large fully 
as that of Indian Corn, thus producing more fodder by at least 
one-fourth than Indian Corn on the same land. This variety, 
moreover, tillers or suckers at the ground enormously, each seed 
producing from three to a dozen sialks, and sometimes more. 
When once well under way, it can be cut for green soiling oftener 
and will yie'd at each cutting far more fodder than the other va- 
ri« ties. It sucker s and tillers more and more the oftener it is cut ; 
and, so far, it exceeds greatly in yield of green fodder and hay 
any of the familiar fodder plants, not excepting perhaps even the 
Pearl Millet. The " Rural Branching" variet.v is, therefore, more 
valuable as a forage plant to be cut for green soiling, or for curing 
as hay. This variety should be planted exclusively in drills four 
feet apart, and not nearer than 18 to 20 inches in the drill, on ac- 
count of its mammoth growth. All of these varieties are annuals. 



THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

(Helianthus Tuherosus.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 

Used as a vegetable, the Jerusalem Artichoke makes a deli- 
cious pickle 5 and when cooked, as hereafter directed, it is es- 
teemed by connoisseurs as a luxury. 

Wash and scrape or pare them ; boil in milk and water till 
they are soft, which will be from fifteen to thirty minutes. Take 
them out and stew them for a few minutes in a sauce made by 
rolling a bit of butter of the size of a walnut in flour, mixed with 
half a pint of cream or milk, and seasoned with pepper, salt, or 
grated nutmeg. 

It is as a forage or root crop, however, that the Artichoke 
possesses unusual merits for the farmer. Its habit may be styled 
self-propagating, for when once established it is almost perpetual ; 
and this gives it a peculiar value. It will grow on exceedingly 
poor land and produce well, while on rich laud the yield is enor- 



For the Southern States. 



137 



mous. Three bushels of tubers are amply sufficient to plant an 
acre, the large ones bein^ cut into pieces with two or three eyes 
liiie potatoes. The land should be thoroughly ploughed, and 
from January to April they should be planted in furrows about 
three to four feet npart, dropping the tubers about eighteen inches 
apart, and covering with a plough. 

When they are well up, x^lough them as you would corn ; and 
when about a foot high, plough them again, throwing a furrow to 
each side, and you are done cultivating them forever. The first 
year they will yield a good crop (from five to eight hundred bush- 
els), and Avjll improve for two or three years, if the soil is good, 
till they double the product of the first year. On piney-woods 
land seven hundred bushels to the acre is only a fair yield. On 
very rich land 1500 to 2000 bushels, it is said, have been produced. 
In August the tops may be cut and cured for hay, which is quite 
equal to corn fodder, or may be fed green, soiled. The yield is 
large, and the tops are eagerly eaten by cattle, horses and mules. 
The tops, if cut, should be taken off about a foot from the ground. 
One cutting does not at all aftect the yield of the tubers. In No- 
vember the hogs should be turned in to haivesc the tubers for 
themselves, and may remain on them till March. In carbonace- 
ous matter — starch or its equivalent — they are but a trifle inferior 
to potatoes, as will be seen from the following table : 

In 1000 parts — Flesh Former s. Fat Formers. 

Potatoes 14 189 

Carrots 6 66 

Parsnips 12 70 

Mangolds. 2 102 

Sugar Beets 3 136 

White Turnips 1 40 

Artichokes 10 188 

Thus it will be seen that in 1000 parts potatoes contain 200 
parts of nutriment, and artichokes 198 parts ; while turnips con- 
tain only 41 parts. Yet the turnip, above all roots, has made 
English agriculture progressive, because they may be fed on land 
without gathering. The artichoke is unaffected in the ground by 
any amount of cold, and, indeed, should always remain there un- 
til gathered for use or planting. 

The enormous yield, the small amount of labor in cultivation, 
and the nutritious character of the tubers, make them the most 
economical food for hogs that can possibly be grown. And the 
hogs, if suffered to root them, will be an advantage to them by 
breaking up and softening the soil as far down as pulverized. 
Sows with suckling pigs should not go on them, as the artichokes are 
said to injure the quality of the milk so as to cause suckling pigs 
to dwindle ; but as soon as they are weaned the pigs will do finely 
by rooting for their living. These artichokes are also the health- 
iest food that hogs can have, and th^y need nothing else but salt, 
ashes and water when fed on them. 



Price per Qt. 



per Gall. 



per. Bush. 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Almanac 6 to 17 

Artichoke 23 

Asparagus • ...23 

Beans, (Bush) 24 

Beans, (Pole)..... 25 

Beets 26 to 28 

Borecole or Kale 28 

Broccoli. 28 

Brussels Sprouts 28 

Bulbous Roots 121 to 125 

Bou quet Papers 125 and 126 

Cabbage. 29 to 32 

Cauliflower..... 32 to 34 

Carrot 34 to 36 

Celery 36 to 38 

Chervil 38 

Collards... ..38 

Corn Salad 38 

Corn 39 and 40 

Cress _..._„ 40 

Cucumber .40 and 41 

Climbing Plants 1 19 and 120 

Directions for Planting 79 to 86 

Dhouro, or Egyptian Corn 134 

Eggplant... 41 and 42 

Endive 42 

Flower Seeds .102 to 118 

Grass and Field Seeds .70 to 79 

Garden Implements .128 to 130 

Herb Seeds 69 

Hot Bed 19 and 20 

Jerusalem Artichot e 136 and 137 

Kohlrabi 43 

Leek 43 

Lettuce 43 to 45 



Page. 

Letter on Alfalfa 92 to 94 

Melon , Musk 45 to 46 

Melon, Water 46 to 47 

Mustard 48 

New York Seed Drill..... 127 

Matthews' Hand Cultivator 128 

Nasturtium 48 

Okra 48 to 49 

Onion 49 and 50 

Parsley 51 

Parsnip 51 

Peas 51 to 53 

Pepper 54 

Potatoes 55 to 59 

Pumpkin 60 

Price List-... 87 to 91 

Price List Garden Implements, 130 

to.... ....133 

Radish 60 to 62 

Remarks on Raising Vegetables 

for Shipping 5 

Roquette , 62 

Spinach. ..... &2 

Salsify. 62 

Sorrel 63 

Squash 63 

Strawberry Growing. 94 to 101 

Seeds by Mail 4 

Sowing Seeds 20 and 21 

Tomato 64 to 66 

Turnip 66 to 69 

Table showing Quantity of Seed 

required to the Acre .22 

Vegetable Garden 18 and 19 



■^/- .,-- €^-' 
-mi' 



'^ 



RICHARD FROTSGHER, 

Nos. 16 & 17 Du Maine Street, 



DEALER IN 







\\\\\\\\0s\\\\\"' wwwwwww^ wwww-^ww^ \^^^ 




D POTATOES A SPECIALTY. 



My stock of Seeds is the largest in the City^ to 
which I call the attention of all in want of Fresh and 
(Reliable Seed. 

Orders respectfully solicited, All communications 
will' meet with prompt attention. ■ - ^